• Filing Date: 2020-06-12
  • Form Type: 10-Q
  • Description: Quarterly report
v3.20.1
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
6 Months Ended
Apr. 30, 2020
Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]  
FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

NOTE 13 – FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

Fair Value Measurements

All financial assets and financial liabilities are recorded at fair value on initial recognition. Transaction costs are expensed when they are incurred, unless they are directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or the assumption of liabilities carried at amortized cost, in which case the transaction costs adjust the carrying amount.

The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:

  Level 1 Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;
  Level 2 Quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability; and
  Level 3 Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (supported by little or no market activity).

 

Under fair value accounting, assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.  The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and stock option liability.

The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents and accounts payable approximate fair value at April 30, 2020 and October 31, 2019 due to the short maturities of these financial instruments.

Derivative liability

The Company classified warrants with a $CDN exercise price as a derivative liability, which was fair valued at each reporting period subsequent to the initial issuance as the functional currency of Silver Bull is the U.S. dollar. The Company used the Black-Scholes pricing model to determine the fair value of these warrants. Determining the appropriate fair-value model and calculating the fair value of warrants requires considerable judgment. The estimated volatility of the Company’s common stock at the date of issuance, and at each subsequent reporting period, was based on the historical volatility adjusted to reflect the implicit discount to historical volatilities observed in the prices of traded warrants. The risk-free interest rate was based on rates published by the government for bonds with a maturity similar to the expected remaining life of the warrants at the valuation date. The expected life of the warrants was assumed to be equivalent to their remaining contractual term. The dividend yield was expected to be none as the Company has not paid dividends nor does the Company anticipate paying a dividend in the foreseeable future. All changes in fair value were recorded in the interim Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss each reporting period.

 

Credit Risk

Credit risk is the risk that the counterparty to a financial instrument will cause a financial loss for the Company by failing to discharge its obligations. To mitigate exposure to credit risk on financial assets, the Company has established policies to ensure liquidity of funds and ensure that counterparties demonstrate acceptable levels of creditworthiness.

The Company maintains its U.S. dollar and Canadian dollar cash and cash equivalents in bank and demand deposit accounts with major financial institutions with high credit standings. Cash deposits held in Canada are insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (“CDIC”) for up to $CDN 100,000. Certain Canadian bank accounts held by the Company exceed these federally insured limits or are uninsured as they relate to U.S. dollar deposits held in Canadian financial institutions. As of April 30, 2020, and October 31, 2019, the Company’s cash and cash equivalent balances held in Canadian financial institutions included $1,295,087 and $1,296,115, respectively, which was not insured by the CDIC. The Company has not experienced any losses on such accounts, and management believes that using major financial institutions with high credit ratings mitigates the credit risk to cash and cash equivalents.

The Company also maintains cash in bank accounts in Mexico. These accounts are denominated in the local currency and are considered uninsured. As of April 30, 2020, and October 31, 2019, the U.S. dollar equivalent balance for these accounts was $17,162 and $62,024, respectively.

Interest Rate Risk

The Company holds substantially all of its cash and cash equivalents in bank and demand deposit accounts with major financial institutions. The interest rates received on these balances may fluctuate with changes in economic conditions. Based on the average cash and cash equivalent balances during the six months ended April 30, 2020, a 1% decrease in interest rates would have resulted in a reduction of approximately $5,618 in interest income for the period.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

The Company is not subject to any significant market risk related to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.