• Filing Date: 2019-08-13
  • Form Type: 10-Q
  • Description: Quarterly report
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
Dyadic International, Inc. (“Dyadic”, “we”, “us”, “our” or the “Company”) is a global biotechnology platform company based in Jupiter, Florida with operations in the United States, a satellite office in the Netherlands and research organizations performing services under contract to Dyadic in Finland and Spain. Over the past two decades, the Company has developed a gene expression platform for producing commercial quantities of industrial enzymes and other proteins, and has previously licensed this technology to third parties, such as Abengoa Bioenergy, BASF, Codexis and others, for use in industrial (non-pharmaceutical) applications. This technology is based on the Myceliophthora thermophila fungus, which the Company named C1. The C1 technology is a robust and versatile fungal expression system for the development and production of enzymes and other proteins.
On December 31, 2015, the Company sold its industrial technology business to DuPont Danisco (“DuPont”), the industrial biosciences business of DuPont (NYSE: DD) for $75 million (the “DuPont Transaction”). As part of the DuPont Transaction, Dyadic retained co-exclusive rights to the C1 technology for use in all human and animal pharmaceutical applications, and currently has the exclusive ability to enter into sub-license agreements (subject to the terms of the license and to certain exceptions). DuPont retained certain rights to utilize the C1 technology in pharmaceutical applications, including the development and production of pharmaceutical products, for which it will be required to make royalty payments to Dyadic upon commercialization. In certain circumstances, Dyadic may owe a royalty to either DuPont or certain licensors of DuPont, depending upon whether Dyadic elects to utilize certain patents either owned by DuPont or licensed in by DuPont.
After the DuPont Transaction, the Company has been focused on the biopharmaceutical industry, specifically in further improving and applying the proprietary C1 technology into a safe and efficient gene expression platform to help accelerate the development, lower production costs and improve the performance of biologic vaccines and drugs at flexible commercial scales. We believe that the C1 technology could be beneficial in the development and manufacturing of human and animal vaccines (such as virus-like particles (VLPs) and antigens), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), Bi-Specific antibodies, Fab antibody fragments, Fc-Fusion proteins, metabolites, and other therapeutic enzymes and proteins.
Effective April 17, 2019, our common stock began trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC’s NASDAQ Capital Market, under the symbol “DYAI”. Prior to the Company’s uplisting to the NASDAQ, the Company’s common stock traded on the OTCQX market.
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, including the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. All significant intra-entity transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. The Company has reclassified certain 2018 amounts previously reported to conform to the 2019 consolidated financial statement presentation. As such, the information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and footnotes as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018, included in our Form 10-K which was filed with the SEC on March 27, 2019.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which are of a normal recurring nature, considered necessary for a fair presentation of all periods presented. The results of the Company’s operations for any interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for any other interim period or for a full fiscal year.
Since concluding the DuPont Transaction, the Company has conducted business in one operating segment, which is identified by the Company based on how resources are allocated, and operating decisions are made. Management evaluates performance and allocates resources based on the Company as a whole.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of our consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the applicable period. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Such differences could be material to the consolidated financial statements.
The Company’s financial instruments that are potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, and investment securities. At times, the Company has cash, cash equivalents, and investment securities at financial institutions exceeding the Federal Depository Insurance Company (“FDIC”) and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (“SIPC”) insured limit on domestic currency and the Netherlands’ FDIC counterpart for foreign currency. The Company only deals with reputable financial institutions and has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
For the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, the Company’s revenue was generated from four and two customers, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, the Company’s revenue was generated from seven and three customers, respectively. As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company’s accounts receivable was from three and four customers, respectively. The loss of business from one or a combination of the Company’s customers could adversely affect its operations.
The Company conducts operations in the Netherlands through its foreign subsidiary and generates a portion of its revenues from customers that are located outside of the United States. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, the Company had two customers outside of the United States (i.e. European customers) that accounted for approximately 73.3% or $287,000 and 71.5% or $567,000 of total revenue, respectively. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, 100% of the Company’s revenue was from the United States.
As of June 30, 2019, the Company had one customer outside of the United States that accounted for approximately 80.0% or $404,000 of accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2018, 100% of the Company’s accounts receivable was from the United States.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We treat highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less when purchased as cash equivalents, including money market funds, which are unrestricted for withdrawal or use.
Investment Securities
The Company invests excess cash balances in short-term and long-term investment grade securities. Short-term investment securities mature within 12 months or less, and long-term investment securities mature between 12 and 18 months from the applicable reporting date. Management determines the appropriate classification of its investments at the time of purchase and reevaluates the classifications at each balance sheet date. The Company’s investments in debt securities have been classified and accounted for as held-to-maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are those securities that the Company has the ability and intent to hold until maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are recorded at amortized cost, adjusted for the amortization or accretion of premiums or discounts. Premiums and discounts are amortized over the life of the related held-to-maturity security. When a debt security is purchased at a premium, both the face value of the debt and premium amount are reflected as investing outflow. Other-than-temporary impairment charges, if incurred, will be included in other income (expense).
The Company’s investments in money market funds have been classified and accounted for as available-for-sale securities and presented as cash equivalents on the consolidated balance sheets. As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, all of our money market funds were invested in U.S. Government money market funds. The Company did not have any investment securities classified as trading as of June 30, 2019 or December 31, 2018.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable consist of billed receivables currently due from customers and unbilled receivables. Unbilled receivables represent the excess of contract revenue (or amounts reimbursable under contracts) over billings to date. Such amounts become billable in accordance with the contract terms, which usually consider the passage of time, achievement of certain milestones or completion of the project.
Outstanding account balances are reviewed individually for collectability. The allowance for doubtful accounts is the Company’s best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in the Company’s existing accounts receivable. Substantially all of our accounts receivable were current and include unbilled amounts that will be billed and collected over the next twelve months. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
Accounts receivable consist of the following:
June 30, 2019
December 31, 2018
Billed receivable


Unbilled receivable




Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following:
June 30, 2019
December 31, 2018
Prepaid expenses - various


Prepaid insurance


Prepaid taxes




Equity Method Investment
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Subtopic 323-10, Investments - Equity Methods and Joint Ventures, which requires the accounting for investments where the Company can exercise significant influence, but not control of a joint venture or equity investment. See Note 3 for the Company’s investments recorded under the equity method of accounting.
Equity method investments are assessed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the investment may not be recoverable. If the decline in value is considered to be other than temporary, the investment is written down to its estimated fair value, which establishes a new cost basis in the investment.
Accounts Payable
Accounts payable consist of the following:
June 30, 2019
December 31, 2018
Research and development expenses


Legal expenses






Accrued Expenses
Accrued expenses consist of the following:
June 30, 2019
December 31, 2018
Employee wages and benefits


Research and development expenses






Revenue Recognition
The Company has no pharmaceutical products approved for sale at this point, and all of our revenue to date has been research revenue from third party collaborations and government grants. The Company is expected to generate future revenue from license agreements and collaborative arrangements, which may include upfront payments for licenses or options to obtain a license, payment for research and development services and milestone payments, in the form of cash or non-cash considerations (e.g., minority equity interest).
Revenue related to research collaborations and agreements: The Company typically performs research and development services as specified in each respective agreement on a best efforts basis, and recognizes revenue from research funding under collaboration agreements in accordance with the 5-step process outlined in ASC Topic 606 (“Topic 606”): (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. We recognize revenue when we satisfy a performance obligation by transferring control of the service to a customer in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive. Since the performance obligation under our collaboration agreements is generally satisfied over time, we elected to use the input method under Topic 606 to measure the progress toward complete satisfaction of a performance obligation.
Under the input methods, revenue will be recognized on the basis of the entity’s efforts or inputs to the satisfaction of a performance obligation (e.g., resources consumed, labor hours expended, costs incurred, or time elapsed) relative to the total expected inputs to the satisfaction of that performance obligation. The Company believes that the cost-based input method is the best measure of progress to reflect how the Company transfers its performance obligation to a customer. In applying the cost-based input method of revenue recognition, the Company uses actual costs incurred relative to budgeted costs to fulfill the performance obligation. These costs consist primarily of full-time equivalent effort and third-party contract costs. Revenue will be recognized based on actual costs incurred as a percentage of total budgeted costs as the Company completes its performance obligations.
A cost-based input method of revenue recognition requires management to make estimates of costs to complete the Company’s performance obligations. In making such estimates, significant judgment is required to evaluate assumptions related to cost estimates. The cumulative effect of revisions to estimated costs to complete the Company’s performance obligations will be recorded in the period in which changes are identified and amounts can be reasonably estimated. A significant change in these assumptions and estimates could have a material impact on the timing and amount of revenue recognized in future periods.
Revenue related to sublicensing agreements: If the sublicense to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue allocated to the license when technology is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license.
Milestone payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes development, commercialization, and regulatory milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the achievement of the milestones is considered probable and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price. If the milestone payment is in exchange for a sublicense and is based on the sublicensee’s subsequent sale of product, the Company recognizes milestone payment by applying the accounting guidance for royalties. To date, the Company has not recognized any milestone payment revenue resulting from any of its sublicensing arrangements.
Royalties: With respect to licenses deemed to be the predominant item to which the sales-based royalties relate, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, the Company has not recognized any royalty revenue resulting from any of its sublicensing arrangements.
We invoice customers based on our contractual arrangements with each customer, which may not be consistent with the period that revenues are recognized. When there is a timing difference between when we invoice customers and when revenues are recognized, we record either a contract asset (unbilled accounts receivable) or a contract liability (deferred research and development obligations), as appropriate. If upfront fees or considerations related to sublicensing agreement are received prior to the technology transfer, the Company will record the amount received as deferred revenue from licensing agreement.
The Company adopted the following practical expedients and exemptions: We generally expense sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period would be one year or less. We do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development (“R&D”) costs are expensed as incurred. R&D costs are related to the Company’s internally funded pharmaceutical programs and other governmental and commercial projects.
Research and development costs consist of personnel-related costs, facilities, research-related overhead, services from independent contract research organizations, and other external costs. Research and development costs, including related party, during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 were as follows:
Three Months Ended June 30,
Six Months Ended June 30,




Outside contracted services




Contracted services - related party




Personnel related costs




Facilities, overhead and other








Foreign Currency Transaction Gain or Loss
The Company’s foreign subsidiary uses the U.S. dollar as its functional currency, and it initially measures the foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities are then re-measured at exchange rates in effect at the end of each period, and property and non-monetary assets and liabilities are converted at historical rates.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company applies fair value accounting for certain financial instruments that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements. The Company defines fair value as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Fair value is estimated by applying the following hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1 – Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Observable inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Inputs that are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimate of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.

Certain assets and liabilities on the balance sheets are measured at carrying values, which approximate fair values due to the short-term nature of these balances. Such items include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, prepaid expenses, and accrued expenses. Investments in debt securities are recorded at amortized cost, and their estimated fair value amounts are provided by the third-party broker service for disclosure purposes.
The Company utilized various methods, including income, cost and market approaches to determine the fair value of its investments in equity interest, which may fall into Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because of the significant unobservable inputs utilized in these valuation approaches. These inputs can be readily observable, market corroborated, or generally unobservable inputs. The Company utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Our key inputs included, but were not limited to, significant management judgments and estimates, including projections of the timing and amount of the project’s cash flows, determination of a discount rate for the income approach, market multipliers, probability weighting of potential outcomes of legal and regulatory proceedings, and weighting of the valuations produced by the income, cost and market approaches.
Income Taxes
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) was enacted on December 22, 2017 and became effective January 1, 2018. The TCJA contains several key provisions, including a reduction in the U.S. Federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% and a change to the corporate alternative minimum tax (“AMT”). The TCJA’s reduction in the U.S. statutory tax rate had no additional impact on the consolidated financial statement for the year ended December 31, 2018.
The TCJA eliminated the corporate AMT and permits existing AMT credit carryforwards to be used to reduce the regular tax obligation in 2018, 2019, and 2020. Any AMT credit carryforwards that do not reduce regular taxes are eligible for a 50% refund in 2018 through 2020, and a 100% refund in 2021. Accordingly, we reclassified the balance of the AMT credit from the deferred tax asset to an income tax receivable in 2018. The corresponding balance in the valuation allowance has been reversed into income tax benefit in the amount of $1,001,233. As of June 2019, we have received 50% or $0.5 million refund for tax year 2018 and expect to receive the remaining 50% for tax years 2019 through 2021.
For the six months ended June 30, 2019, the Company recorded a provision for income taxes of $900. There were no unrecognized tax benefits as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
Deferred tax assets as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 were approximately $5.7 million and $4.6 million, respectively. Due to the Company’s history of operating losses and the uncertainty regarding our ability to generate taxable income in the future, the Company has established a 100% valuation allowance against deferred tax assets as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
On June 20, 2019, the Company received a letter from the United States Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) informing the Company that its 2016 federal tax return was selected for examination. A meeting with the IRS is scheduled in late August 2019. The Company has not been informed of any issues or assessment.
Stock-Based Compensation
We recognize all share-based payments to employees and our board of directors (“Board of Directors”), as non-cash compensation expense, in research and development expenses or general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statement of operations based on the grant date fair values of such payments. Stock-based compensation expense recognized each period is based on the value of the portion of share-based payment awards that is ultimately expected to vest during the period. Forfeitures are recorded as they occur.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common stock outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted net loss per share adjusts the weighted average number of common stock outstanding for the potential dilution that could occur if common stock equivalents, such as stock options were exercised or converted into common stock, calculated by applying the treasury stock method.
For each of the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, the effect of the potential exercise of options to purchase 4,108,390 and 3,441,890 shares of common stock, respectively, were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Adopted as of June 30, 2019
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which modifies the measurement of expected credit losses of certain financial instruments. ASU 2016-13 will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the impact, if any, of this newly issued guidance.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. The effective date for the standard is fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, which for the Company is January 1, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The new disclosure requirements for changes in unrealized gains and losses in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 measurements, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs and the amended requirements for the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively. The Company does not expect ASU 2018-13 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Other pronouncements issued by the FASB or other authoritative accounting standards group with future effective dates are either not applicable or not significant to our consolidated financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Under the new guidance, lessees will be required to recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from operating leases. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. Companies are required to recognize and measure leases using a modified retrospective approach at either the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented or the beginning of the reporting period in which the entity first applies the new standard. ASU 2016-02 was effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2019. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, as the Company’s leases are one year or less and not required to recognize lease assets or liabilities under the new guidance.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, Receivables - Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization of Purchased Callable Debt Securities. The amendments in this ASU shorten the amortization period for certain callable debt securities held at a premium. The amendments require the premium to be amortized to the earliest call date. The amendments do not require an accounting change for securities held at a discount; the discount continues to be amortized to maturity. The Company adopted the standard on January 1, 2019. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The new guidance allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for any stranded tax effects resulting from TCJA that was enacted on December 22, 2017. The new guidance will be effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of 2019. The Company adopted the standard on January 1, 2019. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Non-employee Share-based Payment Accounting. The standard expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payments issued to non-employees for goods or services, simplifying the accounting for share-based payments to non-employees by aligning it with the accounting for share-based payments to employees, with certain exceptions. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted the standard on January 1, 2019. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.