• Filing Date: 2019-02-14
  • Form Type: 10-Q
  • Description: Quarterly report
v3.10.0.1
A. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
3 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
A. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying condensed financial statements of CEL-SCI Corporation (the Company) are unaudited and certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the annual financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America have been omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. While management of the Company believes that the disclosures presented are adequate to make the information presented not misleading, these interim condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2018.

 

In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements contain all accruals and adjustments (each of which is of a normal recurring nature) necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position as of December 31, 2018 and the results of its operations for the three months then ended. The condensed balance sheet as of September 30, 2018 is derived from the September 30, 2018 audited financial statements. Significant accounting policies have been consistently applied in the interim financial statements and the annual financial statements. The results of operations for the three months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the entire year.

 

The financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern, but due to recurring losses from operations and future liquidity needs, there is substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. Refer to discussion in Note B.

 

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies:

 

Research and Office Equipment and Leasehold Improvements – The leased manufacturing facility is recorded at total project costs incurred and is depreciated over the 20-year useful life of the building. Research and office equipment is recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives of five to seven years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the term of the lease. Repairs and maintenance which do not extend the life of the asset are expensed when incurred. The fixed assets are reviewed on a quarterly basis to determine if any of the assets are impaired.

 

Patents - Patent expenditures are capitalized and amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the expected useful life or the legal life of the patent (17 years). In the event changes in technology or other circumstances impair the value or life of the patent, appropriate adjustment in the asset value and period of amortization is made. An impairment loss is recognized when estimated future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset, and from its disposition, is less than the carrying value of the asset. The amount of the impairment loss would be the difference between the estimated fair value of the asset and its carrying value.

 

Research and Development Costs - Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Management accrues Clinical Research Organization (“CRO”) expenses and clinical trial study expenses based on services performed and relies on the CROs to provide estimates of those costs applicable to the completion stage of a study. Estimated accrued CRO costs are subject to revisions as such studies progress to completion. The Company charges revisions to estimated expense in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become known.

 

Income Taxes - The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under the asset and liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating and tax loss carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be recognized.  A full valuation allowance was recorded against the deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2018 and September 30, 2018.

 

On December 22, 2017, the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” (the “Tax Act"), was signed into law by the President of the United States (U.S.). The Tax Act includes significant changes to corporate taxation, including reduction of the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018, limitation of the tax deduction for interest expense to 30% of earnings (except for certain small businesses), limitation of the deduction for net operating losses to 80% of current year taxable income and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks. The Company has accounted for the income tax effects of the Act in applying FASB ASC 740 to the current reporting period. Because the Company records a valuation allowance for its entire deferred income tax asset, there was no impact to the amounts reported in the Company’s financial statements resulting from the Tax Act.

 

Derivative Instruments – The Company has entered into financing arrangements that consist of freestanding derivative instruments that contain embedded derivative features. The Company accounts for these arrangements in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 815, “Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities.” In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP), derivative instruments and hybrid instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities in the balance sheet and are measured at fair value with gains or losses recognized in earnings or other comprehensive income depending on the nature of the derivative or hybrid instruments. The Company determines the fair value of derivative instruments and hybrid instruments based on available market data using appropriate valuation models giving consideration to all of the rights and obligations of each instrument. The derivative liabilities are re-measured at fair value at the end of each interim period.

 

Deferred Rent– Certain of the Company’s operating leases provide for minimum annual payments that adjust over the life of the lease.  The aggregate minimum annual payments are expensed on a straight-line basis over the minimum lease term. The Company recognizes a deferred rent liability for rent escalations when the amount of straight-line rent exceeds the lease payments, and reduces the deferred rent liability when the lease payments exceed the straight-line rent expense.  For tenant improvement allowances and rent holidays, the Company records a deferred rent liability and amortizes the deferred rent over the lease term as a reduction to rent expense.

 

Leases – Leases are categorized as either operating or capital leases at inception. Operating lease costs are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. An asset and a corresponding liability for the capital lease obligation are established for the cost of capital leases. The capital lease obligation is amortized over the life of the lease. For build-to-suit leases, the Company establishes an asset and liability for the estimated construction costs incurred to the extent that it is involved in the construction of structural improvements or takes construction risk prior to the commencement of the lease. Upon occupancy of facilities under build-to-suit leases, the Company assesses whether these arrangements qualify for sales recognition under the sale-leaseback accounting guidance. If a lease does not meet the criteria to qualify for a sale-leaseback transaction, the established asset and liability remain on the Company's balance sheet.

 

Stock-Based Compensation – Compensation cost for all stock-based awards is measured at fair value as of the grant date in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718 “Compensation – Stock Compensation.” The fair value of stock options is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes model requires various judgmental assumptions including volatility and expected option life. The stock-based compensation cost is recognized on the straight-line allocation method as expense over the requisite service or vesting period.

 

Equity instruments issued to non-employees are accounted for in accordance with ASC 505-50, “Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees.” Accordingly, compensation is recognized when goods or services are received and is measured using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The Black-Scholes model requires various judgmental assumptions regarding the fair value of the equity instruments at the measurement date and the expected life of the options.

 

The Company has Incentive Stock Option Plans, Non-Qualified Stock Option Plans, a Stock Compensation Plan, Stock Bonus Plans and an Incentive Stock Bonus Plan. In some cases, these Plans are collectively referred to as the "Plans". All Plans have been approved by the stockholders.

 

The Company’s stock options are not transferable, and the actual value of the stock options that an employee may realize, if any, will depend on the excess of the market price on the date of exercise over the exercise price. The Company has based its assumption for stock price volatility on the variance of daily closing prices of the Company’s stock. The risk-free interest rate assumption was based on the U.S. Treasury rate at date of the grant with term equal to the expected life of the option. Forfeitures are accounted for when they occur. The expected term of options represents the period that options granted are expected to be outstanding and has been determined based on an analysis of historical exercise behavior. If any of the assumptions used in the Black-Scholes model change significantly, stock-based compensation expense for new awards may differ materially in the future from that recorded in the current period.

 

Vesting of restricted stock granted under the Incentive Stock Bonus Plan is subject to service, performance and market conditions and meets the classification of equity awards. These awards were measured at market value on the grant-dates for issuances where the attainment of performance criteria is likely and at fair value on the grant-dates, using a Monte Carlo simulation for issuances where the attainment of performance criteria is uncertain. The total compensation cost will be expensed over the estimated requisite service period.

 

New Accounting Pronouncements

 

In June 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718), (“ASU 2018-7”), which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. An entity should apply the requirements of Topic 718 to nonemployee awards except for specific guidance on inputs to an option pricing model and the attribution of cost. Under current GAAP, non-employee share-based payment awards are measured at the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever can be more reliably measured. Under ASU 2018-07, non-employee share-based payments would be measured at the grant-date fair value of the equity instruments an entity is obligated to issue when the good has been delivered or the service has been rendered and any other conditions necessary to earn the right to benefit from the instruments have been satisfied. Under current GAAP, the measurement date for equity classified non-employee share-based payment awards is the earlier of the date at which a commitment for performance by the counterparty is reached or the date at which the counterparty’s performance is complete. Under ASU 2018-07, equity-classified nonemployee share-based payment awards are measured at the grant date. The definition of the term grant date is amended to generally state the date at which a grantor and a grantee reach a mutual understanding of the key terms and conditions of a share-based payment award. The amendments in this Update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. An entity should only remeasure liability-classified awards that have not been settled by the date of adoption and equity classified awards for which a measurement date has not been established through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. Upon transition, the entity is required to measure these non-employee awards at fair value as of the adoption date. The entity must not remeasure awards that are completed. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of the standard will have on the Company’s financial position and results of operations.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, which will require most leases (except of leases with terms of less than one year) to be recognized on the balance sheet as an asset and a lease liability. Leases will be classified as an operating lease or a financing lease. Operating leases are expensed using the straight-line method whereas financing leases will be treated similarly to a capital lease under the current standard. The new standard will be effective for annual and interim periods, within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018, but early adoption is permitted. The new standard must be presented using the modified retrospective method beginning with the earliest comparative period presented. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of the new standard on its financial statements and related disclosures.

 

The Company has considered all other recently issued accounting pronouncements and does not believe the adoption of such pronouncements will have a material impact on its financial statements.