• Filing Date: 2020-03-23
  • Form Type: 10-K
  • Description: Annual report
Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates: In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management was required to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of the consolidated assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures at the financial reporting date and throughout the periods being reported upon. Certain of the estimates result from judgments that can be subjective and complex and consequently actual results may differ from these estimates, which would be reflected in future periods. Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change in the near-term relate to the determination of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses, which include amounts estimated for claims incurred but not yet reported. The Company uses various assumptions and actuarial data it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances to make these estimates. In addition, accounting policies specific to valuation of investments, assessment of other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”) and loss experience refund payable involve significant judgments and estimates material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Although considerable variability is likely to be inherent in these estimates, management believes that the amounts provided are reasonable.


These estimates are continually reviewed and adjusted if necessary. Such adjustments are reflected in current operations.


Cash and cash equivalents: Cash and cash equivalents are comprised of cash and short- term investments with original maturities of three months or less.


Restricted cash and cash equivalents: Restricted cash and cash equivalents represent funds held in accordance with the Company’s trust agreements with ceding insurers and trustees, which requires the Company to maintain collateral with a market value greater than or equal to the limit of liability, less unpaid premium.


Investments: The Company’s investments consist of fixed-maturity securities and equity securities, and for which its fixed-maturity securities are classified as available-for-sale. The Company’s available-for-sale investments are carried at fair value with changes in fair value included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income in shareholders’ equity. For the Company’s investment in equity securities, the changes in fair value are recorded within the consolidated statements of operations.


Unrealized gains or losses are determined by comparing the fair market value of the investment with their cost or amortized cost. Realized gains and losses on investments are recorded on the trade date and are included in the consolidated statements of operations. The cost of investment sold is based on the specified identification method. Investment income is recognized as earned and discounts or premiums arising from the purchase of debt securities are recognized in investment income using the interest method over the remaining term of the security.


The Company reviews any fixed-maturity securities for OTTI on a quarterly basis and more frequently when economic or market conditions warrant such review. When the fair value of any investment is lower than its cost, an assessment is made to see whether the decline is temporary or other-than-temporary. If the decline is determined to be other-than-temporary, the investment is written down to fair value and an impairment charge is recognized in operations in the period in which the Company makes such determination. For a fixed-maturity security that the Company does not intend to sell nor is it more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell before recovery of its amortized cost, only the credit loss component is recognized in operations, while impairment related to all other factors is recognized in other comprehensive income. The Company considers various factors in determining whether an individual security is other-than-temporarily impaired (see Note 4).


Fair value measurement: GAAP establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under GAAP are as follows:


Level 1 Inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date;
Level 2 Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly, including inputs in markets that are not considered to be active; and
Level 3 Inputs that are unobservable.


Inputs are used in applying the various valuation techniques and broadly refer to the assumptions that market participants use to make valuation decisions, including assumptions about risk. For fixed-maturity securities, inputs may include price information, volatility statistics, specific and broad credit data, liquidity statistics, broker quotes for similar securities and other factors. The fair value of investments in stocks and exchange-traded funds is based on the last traded price. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. However, the determination of what constitutes “observable” requires significant judgment by the Company’s investment custodians. The investment custodians consider observable data to be market data which is readily available, regularly distributed or updated, reliable and verifiable, not proprietary, and provided by independent sources that are actively involved in the relevant markets. The categorization of a financial instrument within the hierarchy is based upon the pricing transparency of the instrument.


Derivative Financial Instruments: The Company may from time to time enter into underwriting contracts such as industry loss warranty contracts (“ILW”) that are treated as derivatives for GAAP purposes. GAAP requires that an entity recognize all derivatives in the consolidated balance sheet at fair value. It also requires that unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in fair value be included in operations or other comprehensive (loss) income. The Company did not have any derivative financial assets at December 31, 2019 or December 31, 2018. There were no derivative financial liabilities at December 31, 2019, and all derivative financial liabilities at December 31, 2018 have been included within reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses.


Deferred policy acquisition costs (“DAC”): Policy acquisition costs consist of brokerage fees, federal excise taxes and other costs related directly to the successful acquisition of new or renewal insurance contracts and are deferred and amortized over the terms of the reinsurance agreements to which they relate. The Company evaluates the recoverability of DAC by determining if the sum of future earned premiums and anticipated investment income is greater than the expected future claims and expenses. If a loss is probable on the unexpired portion of policies in force, a premium deficiency loss is recognized. At December 31, 2019, the DAC was considered fully recoverable and no premium deficiency loss was recorded and there was no DAC at December 31, 2018.


Property and equipment:  Property and equipment are recorded at cost when acquired. Property and equipment are comprised of motor vehicles, furniture and fixtures, computer equipment and leasehold improvements and are depreciated, using the straight-line method, over their estimated useful lives, which are five years for furniture and fixtures and computer equipment and four years for motor vehicles. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the assets or remaining lease term. The Company periodically reviews property and equipment that have finite lives, and that are not held for sale, for impairment by comparing the carrying value of the assets to their estimated future undiscounted cash flows. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, there were no impairments in property and equipment.


Allowance for uncollectible receivables: Management evaluates credit quality by evaluating the exposure to individual counterparties; where warranted management also considers the credit rating or financial position, operating results and/or payment history of the counterparty. Management establishes an allowance for amounts for which collection is considered doubtful. Adjustments to previous assessments are recognized in operations in the year in which they are determined. At December 31, 2019, no receivables were determined to be overdue or impaired, and accordingly, no allowance for uncollectable receivables has been established.


Reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses: The Company determines its reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses on the basis of the claims reported by the Company’s ceding insurers and for losses incurred but not reported (“IBNR”), management uses the assistance of an independent actuary. The reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses represent management’s best estimate of the ultimate settlement costs of all losses and loss adjustment expenses. Management believes that the amounts are adequate; however, the inherent impossibility of predicting future events with precision, results in uncertainty as to the amount which will ultimately be required for the settlement of losses and loss expenses, and the differences could be material. Adjustments are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations in the period in which they are determined.


Loss experience refund payable: Certain contracts include retrospective provisions that adjust premiums or result in profit commissions in the event losses are minimal or zero. In accordance with GAAP, the Company will recognize a liability in the period in which the absence of loss experience obligates the Company to pay cash or other consideration under the contracts. On the contrary, the Company will derecognize such liability in the period in which a loss experience arises. Such adjustments to the liability, which accrue throughout the contract terms, will reduce the liability should a catastrophic loss event covered by the Company occur.


Premiums assumed: The Company records premiums assumed, net of loss experience refunds, as earned pro-rata over the terms of the reinsurance agreements, or period of risk, where applicable, and the unearned portion at the consolidated balance sheet date is recorded as unearned premiums reserve. A reserve is made for estimated premium deficiencies to the extent that estimated losses and loss adjustment expenses exceed related unearned premiums. Investment income is not considered in determining whether or not a deficiency exists.


Subsequent adjustments of premiums assumed, based on reports of actual premium by the ceding companies, or revisions in estimates of ultimate premium, are recorded in the period in which they are determined. Such adjustments are generally determined after the associated risk periods have expired, in which case the premium adjustments are fully earned when assumed.


Certain contracts allow for reinstatement premiums in the event of a full limit loss prior to the expiration of the contract. A reinstatement premium is not due until there is a full limit loss event and therefore, in accordance with GAAP, the Company records a reinstatement premium as written only in the event that the reinsured incurs a full limit loss on the contract and the contract allows for a reinstatement of coverage upon payment of an additional premium. For catastrophe contracts which contractually require the payment of a reinstatement premium equal to or greater than the original premium upon the occurrence of a full limit loss, the reinstatement premiums are earned over the original contract period. Reinstatement premiums that are contractually calculated on a pro-rata basis of the original premiums are earned over the remaining coverage period.


Unearned Premiums Ceded: The Company reduces the risk of future losses on business assumed by reinsuring certain risks and exposures with other reinsurers (retrocessionaires). The Company remains liable to the extent that any retrocessionaire fails to meet its obligations and to the extent that the Company does not hold sufficient security for their unpaid obligations.


Ceded premiums are written during the period in which the risk incept and are expensed over the contract period in proportion to the period of protection. Unearned premiums ceded consist of the unexpired portion of the reinsurance obtained.


Uncertain income tax positions: The authoritative GAAP guidance on accounting for, and disclosure of, uncertainty in income tax positions requires the Company to determine whether an income tax position of the Company is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the relevant tax authority, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. For income tax positions meeting the more likely than not threshold, the tax amount recognized in the consolidated financial statements, if any, is reduced by the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant taxing authority. The application of this authoritative guidance has had no effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements because the Company had no uncertain tax positions at December 31, 2019.


Loss per share: Basic loss per share has been computed on the basis of the weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the years presented. Diluted loss per share is computed based on the weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding and reflects the assumed exercise or conversion of diluted securities, such as stock options and warrants, computed using the treasury stock method.


Share-Based Compensation: The Company accounts for share-based compensation under the fair value recognition provisions of GAAP which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation for all share-based awards made to employees and directors, including stock options and restricted stock issuances based on estimated fair values. The Company measures compensation for restricted stock based on the price of the Company’s ordinary shares at the grant date. Determining the fair value of stock options at the grant date requires significant estimation and judgment. The Company uses an option-pricing model (Black-Scholes option pricing model) to assist in the calculation of fair value for stock options. The Company's shares have not been publicly traded for a sufficient length of time to solely use the Company's performance to reasonably estimate the expected volatility. Therefore, when estimating the expected volatility, the Company takes into consideration the historical volatility of similar entities. The Company considers factors such as an entity's industry, stage of life cycle, size and financial leverage when selecting similar entities. The Company uses a sample peer group of companies in the reinsurance industry as well as the Company’s own historical volatility in determining the expected volatility. Additionally, the Company uses the full life of the options, ten years, as the estimated term of the options, and has assumed no forfeitures during the life of the options.


The Company uses the straight-line attribution method for all grants that include only a service condition. Compensation expense related to all awards is included in general and administrative expenses. 




Recent adopted accounting pronouncements:


Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02. In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)," which supersedes Topic 840 and creates the new lease accounting standards for lessees and lessors, primarily related to the recognition of lease assets and liabilities by lessees for leases classified as operating leases. Under previous guidance for lessees, leases were only included on the balance sheet if certain criteria, classifying the agreement as a capital lease, were met. This update requires the recognition of a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability, discounted to the present value, for all leases that extend beyond 12 months.


For operating leases, the asset and liability are expensed over the lease term on a straight-line basis, with all cash flows included in the operating section of the statement of cash flows. For finance leases, interest on the lease liability is recognized separately from the amortization of the right-of-use asset in the consolidated statement of operations and the repayment of the principal portion of the lease liability is classified as a financing activity while the interest component is included in the operating section of the consolidated statement of cash flows.


We adopted ASU 2016-02, ASU 2018-10 Codification Improvements to Topic 842: Leases and ASU 2018-11 Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements on January 1, 2019.  We applied the standards using the alternative transition method provided by ASU 2018-11 under which leases were recognized at the date of adoption and a cumulative-effective adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings would have been recognized in the period of adoption. As the standard did not have an impact on our net loss, no adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit was required. As of December 31, 2019, $155 thousand of right-of-use assets and $149 thousand of lease liabilities for operating leases were added as operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities line items, respectively, on the consolidated balance sheet as a result of the adoption of this update. We implemented controls for the adoption of the standard and the ongoing monitoring of the right-of-use asset and lease liability, but they did not materially affect our internal control over financial reporting.


Pending Accounting Updates:


Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurements of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 amends the guidance on reporting credits losses and affects loans, debt securities, trade receivables, reinsurance recoverable and other financial assets that have the contractual right to receive cash. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022 (as amended), and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of the requirements of ASU 2016-13 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.


Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-13. In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) - Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (“ASU 2018-13”).  ASU 2018-13 removes, modifies and adds certain disclosure requirements associated with fair value measurements. ASU 2018-13 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The removed and modified disclosures will be adopted on a retrospective basis and the new disclosures will be adopted on a prospective basis. We are currently evaluating our timeline for the adoption of this ASU, which only affects the presentation of certain disclosures and is not expected to impact our results of operations, financial position or liquidity.


Segment Information: Under GAAP, operating segments are based on the internal information that management uses for allocating resources and assessing performance as the source of the Company’s reportable segments. The Company manages its business on the basis of one operating segment, Property and Casualty Reinsurance, in accordance with the qualitative and quantitative criteria established under GAAP.


Reclassifications: Any reclassifications of prior period amounts have been made to conform to the current period presentation.