• Filing Date: 2020-06-24
  • Form Type: 10-K
  • Description: Annual report
12 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. The Company reviews subsidiaries and affiliates, as well as other entities, to determine if they should be considered variable interest entities (“VIE”), and whether it should change the consolidation determinations based on changes in their characteristics. The Company considers an entity a VIE if its equity investors own an interest therein that lacks the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or if such investors do not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or if the entity is structured with non-substantive voting interests. To determine whether or not the entity is consolidated with the Company’s results, the Company also evaluates which interests are variable interests in the VIE and which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE.
Principle of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Quantum and our wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
Company management has made estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of certain assets and liabilities in conformity with U.S. GAAP. These estimates and assumptions have been applied using methodologies that are consistent throughout the periods presented with consideration given to the potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic. However, actual results could differ materially from these estimates and be significantly affected by the severity and duration of the pandemic, the extent of actions to contain or treat COVID-19, how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activity can resume, and the severity and duration of the global economic downturn that results from the pandemic.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company has cash deposits and cash equivalents deposited in or managed by major financial institutions. Cash equivalents include all highly liquid investment instruments with an original maturity of three months or less and consist primarily of money market accounts. At times the related amounts are in excess of amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Company has not experienced any losses with these financial institutions and does not believe such balances are exposed to significant credit risk.
Restricted Cash
Restricted Cash

Restricted cash is primarily attributable to minimum cash reserve requirements under the Company’s revolving credit agreements. The remaining restricted cash is comprised of bank guarantees and similar required minimum balances that serve as cash collateral in connection with various items including insurance requirements, value added taxes, ongoing tax audits and leases in certain countries.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses based on historical experience and expected collectability of outstanding accounts receivable. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition, and for the majority of its customers require no collateral. For customers that do not meet the Company’s credit standards, the Company often requires a form of collateral, such as cash deposits or letters of credit, prior to the completion of a transaction. These credit evaluations require significant judgment and are based on multiple sources of information. The Company analyzes such factors as its historical bad debt experience, industry and geographic concentrations of credit risk, current economic trends and changes in customer payment terms. The Company will write-off customer balances in full to the reserve when it has determined that the balance is not recoverable. Changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts are recorded in general and administrative expenses.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. To increase the comparability of fair value measures, the following hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation methodologies used to measure fair value:

Level 1:
Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2:
Other than quoted prices that are observable in the market for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or model-derived valuations or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3:
Inputs are unobservable and reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.

The categorization of a financial instrument within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our financial instruments consist of Level 3 liabilities.
Manufacturing Inventories
Manufacturing inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on a first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) basis. Costs include material, direct labor, and an allocation of overhead in the case of work in process. Adjustments to reduce the cost of manufacturing inventory to its net realizable value, if required, are made for estimated excess, obsolete or impaired balances. Factors influencing these adjustments include declines in demand, rapid technological changes, product life cycle and development plans, component cost trends, product pricing, physical deterioration and quality issues. Revisions to these adjustments would be required if these factors differ from the Company’s estimates.
Service Parts Inventories
Service parts inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on a FIFO basis. The Company carries service parts because it generally provides product warranty for one to three years and earns revenue by providing enhanced and extended warranty and repair services during and beyond this warranty period. Service parts inventories consist of both component parts, which are primarily used to repair defective units, and finished units, which are provided for customer use permanently or on a temporary basis while the defective unit is being repaired. The Company records adjustments to reduce the carrying value of service parts inventory to its net realizable value and disposes of parts with no use and a net realizable value of zero. Factors influencing these adjustments include product life cycles, end of service life plans and volume of enhanced or extended warranty service contracts. Estimates of net realizable value involve significant estimates and judgments about the future, and revisions would be required if these factors differ from the Company’s estimates.
Property and Equipment
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization, computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Machinery and equipment
3 to 5 years
Computer equipment
3 to 5 years
ERP software
10 years
Other software
3 years
Furniture and fixtures
5 years
Other office equipment
5 years
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of useful life or life of lease

When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the related costs and accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet and any resulting gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) in the period realized.

The Company evaluates the recoverability of the carrying amount of its property and equipment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be fully recoverable. A potential impairment charge is evaluated when the undiscounted expected cash flows derived from an asset group are less than its carrying amount. Impairment losses, if applicable, are measured as the amount by which the carrying value of an asset group exceeds its fair value and are recognized in operating results. Judgment is used when applying these impairment rules to determine the timing of impairment testing, the undiscounted cash flows used to assess impairments and the fair value of the asset group.
Cost of Revenue
Shipping and Handling Fees
Shipping and handling fees are included in cost of revenue and were $9.4 million, $9.1 million, and $10.3 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Cost of Service Revenue
The Company classifies expenses as service cost of revenue by estimating the portion of our total cost of revenue that relates to providing field support to our customers under contract. These estimates are based upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the support activity and the level of infrastructure required to support the activities from which it earns service revenue. In the event its service business changes, its estimates of cost of service revenue may be impacted.
Research and Development Costs
Research and Development Costs
Expenditures relating to the development of new products and processes are expensed as incurred. These costs include expenditures for employee compensation, materials used in the development effort, other internal costs, as well as expenditures for third party professional services. The Company has determined that technological feasibility for its software products is reached shortly before the products are released to manufacturing. Costs incurred after technological feasibility is established have not been material. The Company expenses software-related research and development costs as incurred. Research and development costs were $36.3 million, $32.1 million, and $38.6 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Advertising Expense
Advertising Expense
Advertising expense is recorded as incurred and was $3.4 million, $4.5 million, and $8.9 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Restructuring Charges
Restructuring Reserves
Restructuring reserves include charges related to the realignment and restructuring of the Company’s business operations. These charges represent judgments and estimates of the Company’s costs of severance, closure and consolidation of facilities and settlement of contractual obligations under its operating leases, including sublease rental rates, asset write-offs and other related costs. The Company reassesses the reserve requirements to complete each individual plan under the restructuring programs at the end of each reporting period. If these estimates change in the future or actual results differ from the Company’s estimates, additional charges may be required.
Foreign Currency Translation
Foreign Currency Translation

The Company's international operations generally use their local currency as their functional currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Income and expense accounts are translated at the average monthly exchange rates during the year. Resulting translation adjustments are reported as a component of other comprehensive income (loss) and recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss on our consolidated balance sheets.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes in which deferred tax asset and liabilities are recognized based on differences between the financial reporting carrying values of assets and liabilities and the tax basis of those assets and liabilities, measured at the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those tax assets or liabilities are expected to be realized or settled.

A valuation allowance is provided if the Company believes it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. An increase or decrease in the valuation allowance, if any, that results from a change in circumstances, and which causes a change in the Company’s judgment about the realizability of the related deferred tax asset, is included in the tax provision.

The Company assesses whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. The Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit to be recognized in the financial statements from such a position is measured as the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company reevaluates these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances and changes in tax law. The Company recognizes penalties and tax-related interest expense as a component of income tax expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset Retirement Obligations

The Company records an asset retirement obligation for the fair value of legal obligations associated with the retirement of tangible long-lived assets and a corresponding increase in the carrying amount of the related asset in the period in which the obligation is incurred. In periods subsequent to initial measurement, the Company recognizes changes in the liability resulting from the passage of time and revisions to either the timing or the amount of the original estimate. Over time, the liability is accreted to its present value and the capitalized cost is depreciated over the estimated useful life of the asset. The Company’s obligations relate primarily to certain legal obligations to remediate leased property on which certain assets are located.
Warranty Expense
Warranty Expense

The Company warranties its products against certain defects and the terms range from one to three years. The Company provides for the estimated costs of fulfilling its obligations under hardware warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized. The Company estimates the provision based on historical and projected product failure rates, historical and projected repair costs, and knowledge of specific product failures (if any). The Company regularly reassess its estimates to determine the adequacy of the recorded warranty liability and adjusts the provision, as necessary.
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt Issuance Costs

Debt issuance costs for revolving credit agreements are capitalized and amortized over the term of the underlying agreements on a straight-line basis. Amortization of these debt issuance costs is included in interest expense while the unamortized debt issuance cost balance is included in other current assets and other assets. Debt issuance costs for the Company’s term loans are recorded as a reduction to the carrying amount and are amortized over their term using the effective interest method. Amortization of these debt issuance costs is included in interest expense.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-Based Compensation

The Company classifies stock-based awards granted in exchange for services as either equity awards or liability awards. The classification of an award as either an equity award or a liability award is generally based upon cash settlement options. Equity awards are measured based on the fair value of the award at the grant date. Liability awards are re-measured to fair value each reporting period. Each reporting period, the Company recognizes the change in fair value of awards issued to non-employees as expense. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation on a straight-line basis over the award’s requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award, less actual forfeitures. No compensation expense is recognized for awards for which participants do not render the requisite services. For equity and liability awards earned based on performance or upon occurrence of a contingent event, when and if the awards will be earned is estimated. If an award is not considered probable of being earned, no amount of stock-based compensation is recognized. If the award is deemed probable of being earned, related compensation expense is recorded over the estimated service period. To the extent the estimate of awards considered probable of being earned changes, the amount of stock-based compensation recognized will also change.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Concentration of Credit Risk

The Company sells products to customers in a wide variety of industries on a worldwide basis. In countries or industries where the Company is exposed to material credit risk, the Company may require collateral, including cash deposits and letters of credit, prior to the completion of a transaction. The Company does not believe it has significant credit risk beyond that provided for in the consolidated financial statements in the ordinary course of business. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 no customers represented 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue. The Company had one customer comprising approximately 7% of accounts receivable as of March 31, 2020, one customer comprising approximately 21% of accounts receivable as of March 31, 2019 and one customer comprising approximately 10% of accounts receivable as of March 31, 2018.

If the Company is unable to obtain adequate quantities of the inventory needed to sell its products, the Company could face costs increases or delays or discontinuations in product shipments, which could have a material/adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations. In many cases, the Company’s chosen vendor may be the sole source of supply for the products or parts they manufacture, or services they provide, for the Company. Some of the products the Company purchases from these sources are proprietary or complex in nature, and therefore cannot be readily or easily replaced by alternative sources.
Segment Reporting
Segment Reporting

Business segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which discrete financial information is available and is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing operating performance. Based on the way the Company manages its business, the Company has determined that it currently operates with one reportable segment. The chief operating decision maker focuses on consolidated results in assessing operating performance and allocating resources. Furthermore, the Company offers similar products and services and uses similar processes to sell those products and services to similar classes of customers.

The Company’s chief operating decision-maker is its Chief Executive Officer who makes resource allocation decisions and assesses performance based on financial information presented on a consolidated basis. There are no segment managers who are held accountable by the chief operating decision-maker, or anyone else, for operations, operating results, and planning for levels or components below the consolidated unit level. Accordingly, the Company has determined that it has a single reportable segment and operating segment structure.
Defined Contribution Plan
Defined Contribution Plan

The Company sponsors a qualified 401(k) retirement plan for its U.S employees. The plan covers substantially all employees who have attained the age of 18. Participants may voluntarily contribute to the plan up to the maximum limits established by Internal Revenue Service regulations. No matching contributions were made in the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In April 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), using the modified retrospective transition method under ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements. The modified retrospective transition method applies to all leases existing at the date of initial application and recognizes a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company evaluated its portfolio of leases upon adoption and determined a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings was not needed, as the portfolio of leases contained only operating leases. Further description of the impact of this pronouncement is included in Note 5.

In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement – Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“ASU 2018-02”). ASU 2018-20 allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The Company did not elect to reclassify the income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act from accumulated other comprehensive income to accumulated deficit.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Share-based Payments to Non-Employees (“ASU 2018-07”), to simplify the accounting for share- based payments to non-employees by aligning it with the accounting for share-based payments to employees, with certain exceptions. For public business entities, this ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not impact the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Implementation Costs Incurred in Cloud Computing Arrangements (“ASU 2018-15”), which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). For public entities, ASU 2018-15 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within that fiscal year. The accounting guidance should be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The Company will apply the guidance in ASU 2018-15 prospectively and adoption will not have an impact on its historical consolidated financial statements.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU-2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 will change how entities account for credit impairment for trade and other receivables, as well as for certain financial assets and other instruments. ASU 2016-13 will replace the current “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Under the “incurred loss” model, a loss (or allowance) is recognized only when an event has occurred (such as a payment delinquency) that causes the entity to believe that it is probable that a loss has occurred (i.e., that it has been “incurred”). Under the “expected loss” model, a loss (or allowance) is recognized upon initial recognition of the asset that reflects all future events that leads to a loss being realized, regardless of whether it is probable that the future event will occur. The “incurred loss” model considers past events and current conditions, while the “expected loss” model includes expectations for the future which have yet to occur. ASU 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, was issued in November 2018 and excludes operating leases from the new guidance. The standard will require entities to record a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. For public entities, ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that ASU 2016-13 may have on the timing of recognition and measurement of future provisions for expected losses on its accounts receivable.
Revenue Recognition and Nature and Disaggregation of Revenue
In May 2014 the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), which is a comprehensive new revenue recognition model that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606, using the modified retrospective transition method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of April 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after April 1, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the Company’s historical accounting policies.

The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time or over time as stand ready obligations. A majority of the Company’s revenue is recognized at a point in time when products are accepted, installed or delivered. The Company’s revenue is derived from three main sources: (1) Product, (2) Professional services, and (3) Royalties. Sales tax collected on sales is netted against government remittances and thus, recorded on a net basis.

Product Revenue

The Company's product revenue is comprised of multiple storage solution hardware and software offerings targeted towards consumer and enterprise customers. Revenue from product sales is recognized at the point in time when the customer takes control of the product. If there are significant post-delivery obligations, the related revenue is deferred until such obligations are fulfilled. Revenue from contracts with customer acceptance criteria are recognized upon end user acceptance. The Company's standard contractual terms are F.O.B. shipping point and net 30 days payment, with exceptions on a case by case basis.

Service Revenue

Service revenue primarily consists of three components: (1) post-contract customer support agreements.
(2) installation, and (3) consulting & training.

Customers have the option to choose between different levels of hardware and software support. The Company's support plans include various stand-ready obligations such as technical assistance hot-lines, replacement parts maintenance, and remote monitoring that are delivered whenever called upon by its customers. Support plans provide additional services and assurance outside the scope of our primary product warranties. Revenue from support plans are recognized ratably over the contractual term of the service contract.

The Company offers installation services on all its products. Customers can opt to either have Quantum or a Quantum-approved third-party service provider install our products. Installation services are typically completed within a short period of time and revenue from these services are recognized at the point when installation is complete. A majority of our consulting and training revenue does not take significant time to complete therefore these obligations are satisfied upon completion of such services at a point in time.

Royalty Revenue

The Company licenses certain intellectual property to third party manufacturers which gives the manufacturers rights to intellectual property including the right to either manufacture or include the intellectual property in their products for resale. Licensees pay us a per-unit royalty for sales of their products that incorporate our intellectual property. On a periodic and timely basis, the licensees provide the Company with reports containing units sold to end users subject to the royalties. The reports substantiate that the performance obligation has been satisfied therefore revenue is recognized based on the reports or when amounts can be reasonably estimated.

Significant Judgments

The following significant judgments were used when applying ASC 606 to contracts with customers.

Identification of performance obligations

The Company generally enters into contracts with customers to provide storage solutions to meet their individual needs. Most of the Company’s contracts contain multiple goods and services designed to meet each customers’ unique storage needs. Contracts with multiple goods and services have multiple distinct performance obligations as the promise to transfer hardware, installation services, and support services are capable of being distinct and provide economic benefit to customers on their own.

Stand-alone selling price

For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price (“SSP”) of the good or service underlying each performance obligation. The SSP represents the amount for which the Company would sell the good or service to a customer on a standalone basis (i.e., not sold as a bundle with any other products or services). Where SSP may not be directly observable (e.g., the performance obligation is not sold separately), the Company maximized the use of observable inputs by using information including reviewing discounting practices, performance obligations with similar customers and product groupings. The Company evaluated all methods included in ASC 606 to determine SSP and concluded that invoice price is the best representation of what the Company expects to receive from the delivery of each performance obligation.

This judgment is based on; (1) the fact that each storage solution is customizable to meet an individual customer’s needs (2) sales representatives use various discounting methods based on each purchase orders’ unique mix of product offerings (3) every products’ transaction price can vary depending on the mix of other products included in the same purchase order and (4) there are no identifiable trends that provide a good representation of expected margin for each product. In addition, individual products may have multiple values for SSP depending on factors such as where they are sold, what channel they are sold through, and other products on the purchase order. Due to the use of invoice price as SSP, Step 4 (Allocate Transaction Price) of ASC 606’s 5 step model creates no differences when compared to U.S. GAAP.

Variable consideration

Product revenue includes multiple types of variable consideration, such as rebates, returns, or stock rotations. All contracts with variable consideration require payment upon satisfaction of the performance obligation typically with net 30-day payment terms. The Company does not include significant financing components in its contracts. The Company constrains estimates of variable consideration to amounts that are not expected to result in a significant revenue reversal in the future, primarily based on the most likely level of consideration to be returned to the customer under the specific terms of the underlying programs.

The expected value method is used to estimate the consideration expected to be returned to the customer. The Company uses its large volume of historical data and current trends to drive its estimates. The Company records a reduction to revenue to account for these programs. ASC 606 requires entities to recognize a return asset and corresponding adjustment to cost of sales for its right to recover the goods returned by the customer, at the time of the initial sale. Quantum initially measures this asset at the carrying amount of the inventory, less any expected costs to recover the goods including potential decreases in the value of the returned goods.
Costs of Obtaining and Fulfilling Contracts with Customers

ASC 606 provides new guidance on capitalizing certain fulfillment costs and costs to obtain a contract. The Company’s primary cost to obtain contracts is sales commissions earned by sales representatives. These costs are incremental and expected to be recovered indirectly through the margin inherent within the contract. A large portion of the Company’s contracts are completed within a one-year performance period, and for contracts with a specified term of one year or less, the Company has elected to apply a practical expedient available in ASC 606, which allows the Company to recognize the incremental costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the asset that the Company would otherwise have recognized is one year or less.

Only sales commissions attributed to service contracts qualify for capitalization after application of the practical expedient. Total costs subject to capitalization were immaterial to the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.

The Company’s costs to fulfill contracts consist of shipping and handling activities. The Company elected to apply the practical expedient available in ASC 606 which allows entities to expense the costs of shipping and handling in the period incurred.

Remaining Performance Obligations

Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations represents contracted revenue that has not yet been recognized, which includes deferred revenue and contractually agreed upon amounts, yet to be invoiced, that will be recognized as revenue in future periods. Remaining performance obligations are subject to change and are affected by several factors, including terminations, changes in the scope of contracts, adjustments for revenue that have not materialized and foreign exchange adjustments. The Company applied the practical expedient in accordance with ASC 606, to exclude amounts for variable consideration constituting a sale- or usage-based royalty promised in exchange for a license of intellectual property from remaining performance obligations.

Remaining performance obligation consisted of the following (in thousands):
As of March 31, 2020



The Company expects to recognize approximately 65.5% of the remaining performance obligations within the next 12 months. The majority of the Company’s noncurrent remaining performance obligations is expected to be recognized in the next 13 to 60 months.

Revenue Recognition - Prior to the Adoption of ASC 606

The Company followed the guidance provided in ASC 605 prior to the adoption of ASC 606, which the Company adopted using the modified retrospective method beginning on April 1, 2018.

Under ASC 605, revenue is considered realized, earned, and recognized when all of the following occurs,
persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists,
delivery has occurred or services have been rendered,
the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, and
when collectability is reasonably assured.

Royalty revenue is recognized when earned or when earned amounts can be reasonably estimated.

Multiple Element Arrangements

The Company enters into contracts with customers that contain multiple deliverables such as hardware, software and services, and these arrangements require assessment of each deliverable to determine its estimated selling price. Additionally, the Company used judgment in order to determine the appropriate timing of revenue recognition and to assess whether any software and non-software components function together to deliver a tangible product’s essential functionality in order to ensure the arrangement is properly accounted for as software or hardware revenue. The majority of the Company’s products are hardware products which contain software essential to the overall functionality of the product. Hardware products are generally sold with customer support agreements.

Consideration in such multiple element arrangements is allocated to each non-software element based on the fair value hierarchy, where the selling price for an element is based on vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”), if available; third-party evidence (“TPE”) if VSOE is not available; or the best estimate of selling price (“BESP”), if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. The Company establishes VSOE based upon the selling price of elements when sold on a standalone basis and TPE is determined based upon competitor’s selling price for largely interchangeable products. For BESP, the Company considers its discounting and internal pricing practices, external market conditions and competitive positioning for similar offerings.

For software deliverables, the Company allocates consideration between multiple elements based on software revenue recognition guidance, which requires revenue to be allocated to each element based on the relative fair values of those elements. The fair value of an element must be based on VSOE. Where fair value of delivered elements is not available, revenue is recognized on the “residual method” deferring the fair value of the undelivered elements and recognizing the balance as revenue for the delivered elements. If evidence of fair value of one or more undelivered elements does not exist, all revenue is deferred and recognized at the earlier of the delivery of those elements or the establishment of fair value of the remaining undelivered elements.

Product Revenue — Hardware

Revenue for hardware products sold to distributors, VARs, DMRs, OEMs and end users is generally recognized upon shipment, consistent with the transfer of title and risk of loss. When significant post-delivery obligations exist, the related revenue is deferred until such obligations are fulfilled (sell-through basis). If there are customer acceptance criteria in the contract, the Company recognized revenue upon end user acceptance.

In the period revenue is recognized, allowances are provided for estimated future price adjustments, such as rebates, price protection and future product returns. These allowances are based on programs in existence at the time revenue is recognized, plans regarding future price adjustments, the customers’ master agreements and historical product return rates. Since the Company has historically been able to reliably estimate the amount of allowances required, the Company recognized revenue, net of projected allowances, upon shipment to its customers. If the Company was unable to reliably estimate the amount of revenue adjustments in any specific reporting period, then it would be required to defer recognition of the revenue until the rights had lapsed and the Company was no longer under any obligation to reduce the price or accept the return of the product.

Product Revenue — Software

For software products, the Company generally recognized revenue upon delivery of the software. Revenue from post-contract customer support agreements, which entitle software customers to both telephone support and any unspecified upgrades and enhancements during the term of the agreement, is classified as product revenue, as the value of these support arrangements are the upgrades and enhancements to the software licenses themselves and there is no on-site support. The Company recognized revenue from its post-contract customer support ratably over the term of the agreement. The Company licenses certain software to customers under licensing agreements that allow those customers to embed the Company’s software into specific products offered by the customer. The Company also licenses its software to licensees who pay a fee based on the amount of sales of their products that incorporate the Company’s software. On a periodic basis, the licensees provide the Company with reports listing their sales to end users for which they owe the Company license fees. As the reports substantiate delivery has occurred, the Company recognized revenue based on the information in these reports or when amounts could be reasonably estimated.

Service Revenue

Revenue for service is generally recognized upon the services being rendered. Service revenue primarily consists of customer field support agreements for the Company’s hardware products. For customer field support agreements, revenue equal to the separately stated price of these service contracts is initially deferred and recognized as revenue ratably over the contract period.

Royalty Revenue

The Company licenses certain intellectual property to third party manufacturers under arrangements that are represented by master contracts. The master contracts give the third-party manufacturers rights to the intellectual property which include allowing them to either manufacture or include the intellectual property in products for resale. As consideration, the licensees pay the Company a per-unit royalty for sales of their products that incorporate the Company’s intellectual property. On a periodic and timely basis, the licensees provide the Company with reports listing units sold to end users subject to the royalties. As the reports substantiate delivery has occurred, the Company recognized revenue based on the information either in these reports or when amounts can be reasonably estimated.