• Filing Date: 2020-06-24
  • Form Type: 10-K
  • Description: Annual report
v3.20.1
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business
Quantum Corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries (“Quantum” or the “Company”), was founded in 1980 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1987, and is headquartered in San Jose, California. The Company is a leader in storing and managing digital video and other forms of unstructured data, delivering top streaming performance for video and rich media applications, along with low-cost, long-term storage systems for data protection and archiving. The Company helps customers around the world capture, create and share digital data and preserve and protect it for decades. The Company’s software-defined, hyperconverged storage solutions span from non-violate memory express (“NVMe”), to solid state drives, (“SSD”), hard disk drives, (“HDD”), tape and the cloud and are tied together leveraging a single namespace view of the entire data environment. The Company works closely with a broad network of distributors, value-added resellers (“VARs”), direct marketing resellers (“DMRs”), original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) and other suppliers to meet customers’ evolving needs.
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. The Company reviews subsidiaries and affiliates, as well as other entities, to determine if they should be considered variable interest entities (“VIE”), and whether it should change the consolidation determinations based on changes in their characteristics. The Company considers an entity a VIE if its equity investors own an interest therein that lacks the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or if such investors do not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or if the entity is structured with non-substantive voting interests. To determine whether or not the entity is consolidated with the Company’s results, the Company also evaluates which interests are variable interests in the VIE and which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE.
COVID-19 Risks and Uncertainties
We are subject to the risks arising from COVID-19 which have caused substantial financial market volatility and have adversely affected both the U.S. and the global economy. For many of our customers, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected their business. Movie and television production has been paused, professional and collegiate sports seasons have been postponed or cancelled, and many corporations and enterprises have put information technology spending on hold while they assess the short- and long-term impact of the pandemic. While our supply chain remains intact and operating, we have experienced issues related to our logistics network. The reduced capacity within and across freight lanes (aircraft, personnel, customs clearance, etc.) has caused late deliveries from re-routes and mis-shipments, as well as increased expedite and other charges to deliver and receive products. To date, we have experienced minimal impact on product availability, although future capacity constraints across the network due to lost capacity from factory down time, closures, as well as reduced staff and demand signal fluctuations are expected to impact product availability in the months and possibly quarters to come.

We believe that these social and economic impacts have had a negative effect on sales due to the decline in our customers' ability or willingness to purchase our products and services. The extent of the impact will depend, in part, on how long the negative trends in customer demand and supply chain levels will continue. Our management continues to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions altering our business operations that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers, and stakeholders, or as required by federal, state, or local authorities.

Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Quantum and our wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
Company management has made estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of certain assets and liabilities in conformity with U.S. GAAP. These estimates and assumptions have been applied using methodologies that are consistent throughout the periods presented with consideration given to the potential impacts of COVID-19 pandemic. However, actual results could differ materially from these estimates and be significantly affected by the severity and duration of the pandemic, the extent of actions to contain or treat COVID-19, how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating activity can resume, and the severity and duration of the global economic downturn that results from the pandemic.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company has cash deposits and cash equivalents deposited in or managed by major financial institutions. Cash equivalents include all highly liquid investment instruments with an original maturity of three months or less and consist primarily of money market accounts. At times the related amounts are in excess of amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Company has not experienced any losses with these financial institutions and does not believe such balances are exposed to significant credit risk.

Restricted Cash

Restricted cash is primarily attributable to minimum cash reserve requirements under the Company’s revolving credit agreements. The remaining restricted cash is comprised of bank guarantees and similar required minimum balances that serve as cash collateral in connection with various items including insurance requirements, value added taxes, ongoing tax audits and leases in certain countries.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses based on historical experience and expected collectability of outstanding accounts receivable. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition, and for the majority of its customers require no collateral. For customers that do not meet the Company’s credit standards, the Company often requires a form of collateral, such as cash deposits or letters of credit, prior to the completion of a transaction. These credit evaluations require significant judgment and are based on multiple sources of information. The Company analyzes such factors as its historical bad debt experience, industry and geographic concentrations of credit risk, current economic trends and changes in customer payment terms. The Company will write-off customer balances in full to the reserve when it has determined that the balance is not recoverable. Changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts are recorded in general and administrative expenses.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. To increase the comparability of fair value measures, the following hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation methodologies used to measure fair value:

Level 1:
Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2:
Other than quoted prices that are observable in the market for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or model-derived valuations or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3:
Inputs are unobservable and reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.

The categorization of a financial instrument within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our financial instruments consist of Level 3 liabilities.
Manufacturing Inventories
Manufacturing inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on a first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) basis. Costs include material, direct labor, and an allocation of overhead in the case of work in process. Adjustments to reduce the cost of manufacturing inventory to its net realizable value, if required, are made for estimated excess, obsolete or impaired balances. Factors influencing these adjustments include declines in demand, rapid technological changes, product life cycle and development plans, component cost trends, product pricing, physical deterioration and quality issues. Revisions to these adjustments would be required if these factors differ from the Company’s estimates.
Service Parts Inventories
Service parts inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on a FIFO basis. The Company carries service parts because it generally provides product warranty for one to three years and earns revenue by providing enhanced and extended warranty and repair services during and beyond this warranty period. Service parts inventories consist of both component parts, which are primarily used to repair defective units, and finished units, which are provided for customer use permanently or on a temporary basis while the defective unit is being repaired. The Company records adjustments to reduce the carrying value of service parts inventory to its net realizable value and disposes of parts with no use and a net realizable value of zero. Factors influencing these adjustments include product life cycles, end of service life plans and volume of enhanced or extended warranty service contracts. Estimates of net realizable value involve significant estimates and judgments about the future, and revisions would be required if these factors differ from the Company’s estimates.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization, computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Machinery and equipment
3 to 5 years
Computer equipment
3 to 5 years
ERP software
10 years
Other software
3 years
Furniture and fixtures
5 years
Other office equipment
5 years
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of useful life or life of lease


When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the related costs and accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet and any resulting gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) in the period realized.

The Company evaluates the recoverability of the carrying amount of its property and equipment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be fully recoverable. A potential impairment charge is evaluated when the undiscounted expected cash flows derived from an asset group are less than its carrying amount. Impairment losses, if applicable, are measured as the amount by which the carrying value of an asset group exceeds its fair value and are recognized in operating results. Judgment is used when applying these impairment rules to determine the timing of impairment testing, the undiscounted cash flows used to assess impairments and the fair value of the asset group.
Cost of Service Revenue
The Company classifies expenses as service cost of revenue by estimating the portion of our total cost of revenue that relates to providing field support to our customers under contract. These estimates are based upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the support activity and the level of infrastructure required to support the activities from which it earns service revenue. In the event its service business changes, its estimates of cost of service revenue may be impacted.
Research and Development Costs
Expenditures relating to the development of new products and processes are expensed as incurred. These costs include expenditures for employee compensation, materials used in the development effort, other internal costs, as well as expenditures for third party professional services. The Company has determined that technological feasibility for its software products is reached shortly before the products are released to manufacturing. Costs incurred after technological feasibility is established have not been material. The Company expenses software-related research and development costs as incurred. Research and development costs were $36.3 million, $32.1 million, and $38.6 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Advertising Expense
Advertising expense is recorded as incurred and was $3.4 million, $4.5 million, and $8.9 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Shipping and Handling Fees
Shipping and handling fees are included in cost of revenue and were $9.4 million, $9.1 million, and $10.3 million in fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Restructuring Reserves
Restructuring reserves include charges related to the realignment and restructuring of the Company’s business operations. These charges represent judgments and estimates of the Company’s costs of severance, closure and consolidation of facilities and settlement of contractual obligations under its operating leases, including sublease rental rates, asset write-offs and other related costs. The Company reassesses the reserve requirements to complete each individual plan under the restructuring programs at the end of each reporting period. If these estimates change in the future or actual results differ from the Company’s estimates, additional charges may be required.
Foreign Currency Translation

The Company's international operations generally use their local currency as their functional currency. Assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Income and expense accounts are translated at the average monthly exchange rates during the year. Resulting translation adjustments are reported as a component of other comprehensive income (loss) and recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss on our consolidated balance sheets.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes in which deferred tax asset and liabilities are recognized based on differences between the financial reporting carrying values of assets and liabilities and the tax basis of those assets and liabilities, measured at the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those tax assets or liabilities are expected to be realized or settled.

A valuation allowance is provided if the Company believes it is more likely than not that all or some portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. An increase or decrease in the valuation allowance, if any, that results from a change in circumstances, and which causes a change in the Company’s judgment about the realizability of the related deferred tax asset, is included in the tax provision.

The Company assesses whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. The Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit to be recognized in the financial statements from such a position is measured as the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company reevaluates these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances and changes in tax law. The Company recognizes penalties and tax-related interest expense as a component of income tax expense in the consolidated statements of operations.

Asset Retirement Obligations

The Company records an asset retirement obligation for the fair value of legal obligations associated with the retirement of tangible long-lived assets and a corresponding increase in the carrying amount of the related asset in the period in which the obligation is incurred. In periods subsequent to initial measurement, the Company recognizes changes in the liability resulting from the passage of time and revisions to either the timing or the amount of the original estimate. Over time, the liability is accreted to its present value and the capitalized cost is depreciated over the estimated useful life of the asset. The Company’s obligations relate primarily to certain legal obligations to remediate leased property on which certain assets are located.

Warranty Expense

The Company warranties its products against certain defects and the terms range from one to three years. The Company provides for the estimated costs of fulfilling its obligations under hardware warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized. The Company estimates the provision based on historical and projected product failure rates, historical and projected repair costs, and knowledge of specific product failures (if any). The Company regularly reassess its estimates to determine the adequacy of the recorded warranty liability and adjusts the provision, as necessary.

Debt Issuance Costs

Debt issuance costs for revolving credit agreements are capitalized and amortized over the term of the underlying agreements on a straight-line basis. Amortization of these debt issuance costs is included in interest expense while the unamortized debt issuance cost balance is included in other current assets and other assets. Debt issuance costs for the Company’s term loans are recorded as a reduction to the carrying amount and are amortized over their term using the effective interest method. Amortization of these debt issuance costs is included in interest expense.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company classifies stock-based awards granted in exchange for services as either equity awards or liability awards. The classification of an award as either an equity award or a liability award is generally based upon cash settlement options. Equity awards are measured based on the fair value of the award at the grant date. Liability awards are re-measured to fair value each reporting period. Each reporting period, the Company recognizes the change in fair value of awards issued to non-employees as expense. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation on a straight-line basis over the award’s requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the award, less actual forfeitures. No compensation expense is recognized for awards for which participants do not render the requisite services. For equity and liability awards earned based on performance or upon occurrence of a contingent event, when and if the awards will be earned is estimated. If an award is not considered probable of being earned, no amount of stock-based compensation is recognized. If the award is deemed probable of being earned, related compensation expense is recorded over the estimated service period. To the extent the estimate of awards considered probable of being earned changes, the amount of stock-based compensation recognized will also change.

Concentration of Credit Risk

The Company sells products to customers in a wide variety of industries on a worldwide basis. In countries or industries where the Company is exposed to material credit risk, the Company may require collateral, including cash deposits and letters of credit, prior to the completion of a transaction. The Company does not believe it has significant credit risk beyond that provided for in the consolidated financial statements in the ordinary course of business. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 no customers represented 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue. The Company had one customer comprising approximately 7% of accounts receivable as of March 31, 2020, one customer comprising approximately 21% of accounts receivable as of March 31, 2019 and one customer comprising approximately 10% of accounts receivable as of March 31, 2018.

If the Company is unable to obtain adequate quantities of the inventory needed to sell its products, the Company could face costs increases or delays or discontinuations in product shipments, which could have a material/adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations. In many cases, the Company’s chosen vendor may be the sole source of supply for the products or parts they manufacture, or services they provide, for the Company. Some of the products the Company purchases from these sources are proprietary or complex in nature, and therefore cannot be readily or easily replaced by alternative sources.

Segment Reporting

Business segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which discrete financial information is available and is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing operating performance. Based on the way the Company manages its business, the Company has determined that it currently operates with one reportable segment. The chief operating decision maker focuses on consolidated results in assessing operating performance and allocating resources. Furthermore, the Company offers similar products and services and uses similar processes to sell those products and services to similar classes of customers.

The Company’s chief operating decision-maker is its Chief Executive Officer who makes resource allocation decisions and assesses performance based on financial information presented on a consolidated basis. There are no segment managers who are held accountable by the chief operating decision-maker, or anyone else, for operations, operating results, and planning for levels or components below the consolidated unit level. Accordingly, the Company has determined that it has a single reportable segment and operating segment structure.
Based on how the Company manages its business, the Company has determined that it currently operates in one reportable segment. The Company operates in three geographic regions: (a) Americas; (b) Europe, Middle East, and Africa (“EMEA”); and (c) Asia Pacific (“APAC”).

The following table summarizes property and equipment, net by geographic region (in thousands):

 
For the year ended March 31,
 
2020
 
2019
United States
$
8,488

 
$
7,912

International
558

 
525

Total
$
9,046

 
$
8,437



Defined Contribution Plan

The Company sponsors a qualified 401(k) retirement plan for its U.S employees. The plan covers substantially all employees who have attained the age of 18. Participants may voluntarily contribute to the plan up to the maximum limits established by Internal Revenue Service regulations. No matching contributions were made in the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, and $0.8 million was incurred for the year ended March 31, 2018.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In April 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), using the modified retrospective transition method under ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements. The modified retrospective transition method applies to all leases existing at the date of initial application and recognizes a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company evaluated its portfolio of leases upon adoption and determined a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings was not needed, as the portfolio of leases contained only operating leases. Further description of the impact of this pronouncement is included in Note 5.

In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement – Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“ASU 2018-02”). ASU 2018-20 allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The Company did not elect to reclassify the income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act from accumulated other comprehensive income to accumulated deficit.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Share-based Payments to Non-Employees (“ASU 2018-07”), to simplify the accounting for share- based payments to non-employees by aligning it with the accounting for share-based payments to employees, with certain exceptions. For public business entities, this ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not impact the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Implementation Costs Incurred in Cloud Computing Arrangements (“ASU 2018-15”), which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). For public entities, ASU 2018-15 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within that fiscal year. The accounting guidance should be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The Company will apply the guidance in ASU 2018-15 prospectively and adoption will not have an impact on its historical consolidated financial statements.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU-2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 will change how entities account for credit impairment for trade and other receivables, as well as for certain financial assets and other instruments. ASU 2016-13 will replace the current “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Under the “incurred loss” model, a loss (or allowance) is recognized only when an event has occurred (such as a payment delinquency) that causes the entity to believe that it is probable that a loss has occurred (i.e., that it has been “incurred”). Under the “expected loss” model, a loss (or allowance) is recognized upon initial recognition of the asset that reflects all future events that leads to a loss being realized, regardless of whether it is probable that the future event will occur. The “incurred loss” model considers past events and current conditions, while the “expected loss” model includes expectations for the future which have yet to occur. ASU 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, was issued in November 2018 and excludes operating leases from the new guidance. The standard will require entities to record a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. For public entities, ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact that ASU 2016-13 may have on the timing of recognition and measurement of future provisions for expected losses on its accounts receivable.