• Filing Date: 2020-06-24
  • Form Type: 10-K
  • Description: Annual report
v3.20.1
REVENUE RECOGNITION
12 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Segment Reporting [Abstract]  
REVENUE RECOGNITION
REVENUE RECOGNITION
In May 2014 the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), which is a comprehensive new revenue recognition model that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. On April 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606, using the modified retrospective transition method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of April 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after April 1, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the Company’s historical accounting policies.

The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time or over time as stand ready obligations. A majority of the Company’s revenue is recognized at a point in time when products are accepted, installed or delivered. The Company’s revenue is derived from three main sources: (1) Product, (2) Professional services, and (3) Royalties. Sales tax collected on sales is netted against government remittances and thus, recorded on a net basis.

Product Revenue

The Company's product revenue is comprised of multiple storage solution hardware and software offerings targeted towards consumer and enterprise customers. Revenue from product sales is recognized at the point in time when the customer takes control of the product. If there are significant post-delivery obligations, the related revenue is deferred until such obligations are fulfilled. Revenue from contracts with customer acceptance criteria are recognized upon end user acceptance. The Company's standard contractual terms are F.O.B. shipping point and net 30 days payment, with exceptions on a case by case basis.

Service Revenue

Service revenue primarily consists of three components: (1) post-contract customer support agreements.
(2) installation, and (3) consulting & training.

Customers have the option to choose between different levels of hardware and software support. The Company's support plans include various stand-ready obligations such as technical assistance hot-lines, replacement parts maintenance, and remote monitoring that are delivered whenever called upon by its customers. Support plans provide additional services and assurance outside the scope of our primary product warranties. Revenue from support plans are recognized ratably over the contractual term of the service contract.

The Company offers installation services on all its products. Customers can opt to either have Quantum or a Quantum-approved third-party service provider install our products. Installation services are typically completed within a short period of time and revenue from these services are recognized at the point when installation is complete. A majority of our consulting and training revenue does not take significant time to complete therefore these obligations are satisfied upon completion of such services at a point in time.

Royalty Revenue

The Company licenses certain intellectual property to third party manufacturers which gives the manufacturers rights to intellectual property including the right to either manufacture or include the intellectual property in their products for resale. Licensees pay us a per-unit royalty for sales of their products that incorporate our intellectual property. On a periodic and timely basis, the licensees provide the Company with reports containing units sold to end users subject to the royalties. The reports substantiate that the performance obligation has been satisfied therefore revenue is recognized based on the reports or when amounts can be reasonably estimated.

Significant Judgments

The following significant judgments were used when applying ASC 606 to contracts with customers.

Identification of performance obligations

The Company generally enters into contracts with customers to provide storage solutions to meet their individual needs. Most of the Company’s contracts contain multiple goods and services designed to meet each customers’ unique storage needs. Contracts with multiple goods and services have multiple distinct performance obligations as the promise to transfer hardware, installation services, and support services are capable of being distinct and provide economic benefit to customers on their own.

Stand-alone selling price

For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price (“SSP”) of the good or service underlying each performance obligation. The SSP represents the amount for which the Company would sell the good or service to a customer on a standalone basis (i.e., not sold as a bundle with any other products or services). Where SSP may not be directly observable (e.g., the performance obligation is not sold separately), the Company maximized the use of observable inputs by using information including reviewing discounting practices, performance obligations with similar customers and product groupings. The Company evaluated all methods included in ASC 606 to determine SSP and concluded that invoice price is the best representation of what the Company expects to receive from the delivery of each performance obligation.

This judgment is based on; (1) the fact that each storage solution is customizable to meet an individual customer’s needs (2) sales representatives use various discounting methods based on each purchase orders’ unique mix of product offerings (3) every products’ transaction price can vary depending on the mix of other products included in the same purchase order and (4) there are no identifiable trends that provide a good representation of expected margin for each product. In addition, individual products may have multiple values for SSP depending on factors such as where they are sold, what channel they are sold through, and other products on the purchase order. Due to the use of invoice price as SSP, Step 4 (Allocate Transaction Price) of ASC 606’s 5 step model creates no differences when compared to U.S. GAAP.

Variable consideration

Product revenue includes multiple types of variable consideration, such as rebates, returns, or stock rotations. All contracts with variable consideration require payment upon satisfaction of the performance obligation typically with net 30-day payment terms. The Company does not include significant financing components in its contracts. The Company constrains estimates of variable consideration to amounts that are not expected to result in a significant revenue reversal in the future, primarily based on the most likely level of consideration to be returned to the customer under the specific terms of the underlying programs.

The expected value method is used to estimate the consideration expected to be returned to the customer. The Company uses its large volume of historical data and current trends to drive its estimates. The Company records a reduction to revenue to account for these programs. ASC 606 requires entities to recognize a return asset and corresponding adjustment to cost of sales for its right to recover the goods returned by the customer, at the time of the initial sale. Quantum initially measures this asset at the carrying amount of the inventory, less any expected costs to recover the goods including potential decreases in the value of the returned goods.

In the following table, revenue is disaggregated by major product offering and geographies (in thousands):
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
2020
 
20191
 
20181
Americas2
 
 
 
 
 
   Primary storage systems
$
54,211

 
$
33,789

 
$
44,693

   Secondary storage systems
57,192

 
72,696

 
69,582

   Device and media
31,228

 
34,079

 
39,664

   Service
82,607

 
87,040

 
87,960

Total revenue
225,238

 
227,604

 
241,899

 
 
 
 
 
 
EMEA
 
 
 
 
 
   Primary storage systems
16,078

 
18,902

 
24,006

   Secondary storage systems
40,008

 
40,666

 
37,376

   Device and media
25,484

 
19,064

 
21,306

   Service
39,467

 
37,216

 
37,875

Total revenue
121,037

 
115,848

 
120,563

 
 
 
 
 
 
APAC
 
 
 
 
 
   Primary storage systems
6,863

 
6,120

 
9,277

   Secondary storage systems
14,472

 
13,166

 
14,444

   Device and media
5,632

 
6,172

 
8,234

   Service
8,976

 
10,440

 
10,688

Total revenue
35,943

 
35,898

 
42,643

 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated
 
 
 
 
 
   Primary storage systems
77,152

 
58,811

 
77,976

   Secondary storage systems
111,672

 
126,528

 
121,402

   Device and media
62,344

 
59,315

 
69,204

   Service
131,050

 
134,696

 
136,523

   Royalty3
20,731

 
23,330

 
32,579

Total revenue
$
402,949

 
$
402,680

 
$
437,684


1 Primary and Secondary storage system revenue has been adjusted for fiscal years 2019 and 2018 due to certain reclassifications from Primary to Secondary storage systems.

2 Revenue for Americas geographic region outside of the United States is not significant.

3 Royalty revenue is not allocable to geographic regions.

Contract Balances

Contract assets consist of unbilled receivables and are recorded when revenue is recognized in advance of scheduled billings to our customers. Contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue which is recorded when customers have been billed for support services, but the Company hasn’t fulfilled its service obligation and revenue related to certain product sales.

The following table presents the Company’s contract liabilities and certain information related to this balance as of March 31, 2020 (in thousands): 
 
 
March 31, 2020
Deferred revenue
 
$
118,935

Revenue recognized in the period from amounts included in contract liabilities at the beginning of the period
 
$
80,977



Costs of Obtaining and Fulfilling Contracts with Customers

ASC 606 provides new guidance on capitalizing certain fulfillment costs and costs to obtain a contract. The Company’s primary cost to obtain contracts is sales commissions earned by sales representatives. These costs are incremental and expected to be recovered indirectly through the margin inherent within the contract. A large portion of the Company’s contracts are completed within a one-year performance period, and for contracts with a specified term of one year or less, the Company has elected to apply a practical expedient available in ASC 606, which allows the Company to recognize the incremental costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the asset that the Company would otherwise have recognized is one year or less.

Only sales commissions attributed to service contracts qualify for capitalization after application of the practical expedient. Total costs subject to capitalization were immaterial to the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.

The Company’s costs to fulfill contracts consist of shipping and handling activities. The Company elected to apply the practical expedient available in ASC 606 which allows entities to expense the costs of shipping and handling in the period incurred.

Remaining Performance Obligations

Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations represents contracted revenue that has not yet been recognized, which includes deferred revenue and contractually agreed upon amounts, yet to be invoiced, that will be recognized as revenue in future periods. Remaining performance obligations are subject to change and are affected by several factors, including terminations, changes in the scope of contracts, adjustments for revenue that have not materialized and foreign exchange adjustments. The Company applied the practical expedient in accordance with ASC 606, to exclude amounts for variable consideration constituting a sale- or usage-based royalty promised in exchange for a license of intellectual property from remaining performance obligations.

Remaining performance obligation consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
 
Current
 
Non-Current
 
Total
As of March 31, 2020
 
$
89,036

 
$
46,827

 
$
135,864



The Company expects to recognize approximately 65.5% of the remaining performance obligations within the next 12 months. The majority of the Company’s noncurrent remaining performance obligations is expected to be recognized in the next 13 to 60 months.

Revenue Recognition - Prior to the Adoption of ASC 606

The Company followed the guidance provided in ASC 605 prior to the adoption of ASC 606, which the Company adopted using the modified retrospective method beginning on April 1, 2018.

Under ASC 605, revenue is considered realized, earned, and recognized when all of the following occurs,
persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists,
delivery has occurred or services have been rendered,
the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, and
when collectability is reasonably assured.

Royalty revenue is recognized when earned or when earned amounts can be reasonably estimated.

Multiple Element Arrangements

The Company enters into contracts with customers that contain multiple deliverables such as hardware, software and services, and these arrangements require assessment of each deliverable to determine its estimated selling price. Additionally, the Company used judgment in order to determine the appropriate timing of revenue recognition and to assess whether any software and non-software components function together to deliver a tangible product’s essential functionality in order to ensure the arrangement is properly accounted for as software or hardware revenue. The majority of the Company’s products are hardware products which contain software essential to the overall functionality of the product. Hardware products are generally sold with customer support agreements.

Consideration in such multiple element arrangements is allocated to each non-software element based on the fair value hierarchy, where the selling price for an element is based on vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”), if available; third-party evidence (“TPE”) if VSOE is not available; or the best estimate of selling price (“BESP”), if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. The Company establishes VSOE based upon the selling price of elements when sold on a standalone basis and TPE is determined based upon competitor’s selling price for largely interchangeable products. For BESP, the Company considers its discounting and internal pricing practices, external market conditions and competitive positioning for similar offerings.

For software deliverables, the Company allocates consideration between multiple elements based on software revenue recognition guidance, which requires revenue to be allocated to each element based on the relative fair values of those elements. The fair value of an element must be based on VSOE. Where fair value of delivered elements is not available, revenue is recognized on the “residual method” deferring the fair value of the undelivered elements and recognizing the balance as revenue for the delivered elements. If evidence of fair value of one or more undelivered elements does not exist, all revenue is deferred and recognized at the earlier of the delivery of those elements or the establishment of fair value of the remaining undelivered elements.

Product Revenue — Hardware

Revenue for hardware products sold to distributors, VARs, DMRs, OEMs and end users is generally recognized upon shipment, consistent with the transfer of title and risk of loss. When significant post-delivery obligations exist, the related revenue is deferred until such obligations are fulfilled (sell-through basis). If there are customer acceptance criteria in the contract, the Company recognized revenue upon end user acceptance.

In the period revenue is recognized, allowances are provided for estimated future price adjustments, such as rebates, price protection and future product returns. These allowances are based on programs in existence at the time revenue is recognized, plans regarding future price adjustments, the customers’ master agreements and historical product return rates. Since the Company has historically been able to reliably estimate the amount of allowances required, the Company recognized revenue, net of projected allowances, upon shipment to its customers. If the Company was unable to reliably estimate the amount of revenue adjustments in any specific reporting period, then it would be required to defer recognition of the revenue until the rights had lapsed and the Company was no longer under any obligation to reduce the price or accept the return of the product.

Product Revenue — Software

For software products, the Company generally recognized revenue upon delivery of the software. Revenue from post-contract customer support agreements, which entitle software customers to both telephone support and any unspecified upgrades and enhancements during the term of the agreement, is classified as product revenue, as the value of these support arrangements are the upgrades and enhancements to the software licenses themselves and there is no on-site support. The Company recognized revenue from its post-contract customer support ratably over the term of the agreement. The Company licenses certain software to customers under licensing agreements that allow those customers to embed the Company’s software into specific products offered by the customer. The Company also licenses its software to licensees who pay a fee based on the amount of sales of their products that incorporate the Company’s software. On a periodic basis, the licensees provide the Company with reports listing their sales to end users for which they owe the Company license fees. As the reports substantiate delivery has occurred, the Company recognized revenue based on the information in these reports or when amounts could be reasonably estimated.

Service Revenue

Revenue for service is generally recognized upon the services being rendered. Service revenue primarily consists of customer field support agreements for the Company’s hardware products. For customer field support agreements, revenue equal to the separately stated price of these service contracts is initially deferred and recognized as revenue ratably over the contract period.

Royalty Revenue

The Company licenses certain intellectual property to third party manufacturers under arrangements that are represented by master contracts. The master contracts give the third-party manufacturers rights to the intellectual property which include allowing them to either manufacture or include the intellectual property in products for resale. As consideration, the licensees pay the Company a per-unit royalty for sales of their products that incorporate the Company’s intellectual property. On a periodic and timely basis, the licensees provide the Company with reports listing units sold to end users subject to the royalties. As the reports substantiate delivery has occurred, the Company recognized revenue based on the information either in these reports or when amounts can be reasonably estimated.