• Filing Date: 2021-03-31
  • Form Type: 10-K
  • Description: Annual report
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies



Principles of Consolidation - The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Document Security System and its wholly owned and its majority owned or subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Use of Estimates - The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, including those related to the accounts and notes receivable, inventory, fair values of investments, recoverability of long-lived assets and goodwill, useful lives of intangible assets and property and equipment, contingencies fair values of options and warrants to purchase the Company’s common stock, deferred revenue and income taxes, substantial doubt about ability to continue as a going concern among others. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities.


Reclassifications - Certain amounts on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.


Cash Equivalents - All highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase are classified as cash equivalents. Amounts included in cash equivalents in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets are money market funds whose adjusted costs approximate fair value.


Accounts Receivable - The Company extends credit to its customers in the normal course of business. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations and generally do not require collateral. Payment terms are generally 30 days but up to net 105 for certain customers. The Company carries its trade accounts receivable at invoice amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon management’s estimates that include a review of the history of past write-offs and collections and an analysis of current credit conditions. As of December 31, 2020, the Company established a reserve for doubtful accounts of approximately $25,000 ($41,000 – 2019). The Company does not accrue interest on past due accounts receivable.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments - Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The Fair Value Measurement Topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). These tiers include:


● Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.


● Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets or quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and


● Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions, such as valuations derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable.


The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheet of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, prepaids, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value because of the immediate or short-term maturity of these financial instruments. Marketable securities classify as a Level 1 fair value financial instrument. The fair value of notes receivable approximates their carrying value as the stated or discounted rates of the notes do not reflect recent market conditions. The fair value of revolving credit lines notes payable and long-term debt approximates their carrying value as the stated or discounted rates of the debt reflect recent market conditions. The fair value of investments where the fair value is not considered readily determinable, are carried at cost.


Inventory - Inventories consist primarily of paper, pre-printed security paper, paperboard, fully prepared packaging, and health and beauty products which and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value on the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) method. Packaging work-in-process and finished goods included the cost of materials, direct labor and overhead. At the closing of each reporting period, the Company evaluates its inventory in order to adjust the inventory balance for obsolete and slow-moving items. No reserve was recorded as of December 31, 2020 or 2019. Write-downs and write-offs are charged to cost of revenue.


Investments – Investments in equity securities with a readily determinable fair value, not accounted for under the equity method, are recorded at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in earnings. For equity securities without a readily determinable fair value, the investment is recorded at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus adjustments related to observable transactions for the same or similar securities, with unrealized gains and losses included in earnings.


For equity method investments, the Company regularly reviews its investments to determine whether there is a decline in fair value below book value. If there is a decline that is other-than-temporary, the investment is written down to fair value. See Note 6 for further discussion on investments.


Property, Plant and Equipment - Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives or lease period of the assets whichever is shorter. Expenditures for renewals and betterments are capitalized. Expenditures for minor items, repairs and maintenance are charged to operations as incurred. Any gain or loss upon sale or retirement due to obsolescence is reflected in the operating results in the period the event takes place. Depreciation expense in 2020 was approximately $710,000 ($690,000 - 2019).


Goodwill - Goodwill is the excess of cost of an acquired entity over the fair value of amounts assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Goodwill is subject to impairment testing at least annually and will be tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying amount may be impaired. FASB ASC Topic 350 provides an entity with the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after completing the assessment, it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the Company will proceed to a quantitative test. The Company may also elect to perform a quantitative test instead of a qualitative test for any or all of our reporting units. The test compares the fair value of an entity’s reporting units to the carrying value of those reporting units. This quantitative test requires various judgments and estimates. The Company estimates the fair value of the reporting unit using a market approach in combination with a discounted operating cash flow approach. Impairment of goodwill is measured as the excess of the carrying amount of goodwill over the fair values of recognized and unrecognized assets and liabilities of the reporting unit. The Company performed its annual goodwill impairment test as of December 31, 2020, and no impairment was deemed necessary for the goodwill associated with Premier Packaging Company of approximately $1,768,600. Consistent with this accounting impairment analysis, the Company determined that due to many factors, including the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and the related closing of the operations of the Plastic Group, the Company has quantitatively tested the carrying value of its goodwill associated with the DSS Plastics Group and determined that an impairment of the DSS Plastics’ goodwill had occurred and the Company recorded a full goodwill impairment of $685,000 during the twelve-months ended December 31, 2020. This impairment has been included in the calculation of the discontinued operations of DSS Plastics group. There was no goodwill impairment recorded during the year ended December 31, 2019.


Intangible Assets - The estimated fair values of acquired intangibles are generally determined based upon future economic benefits such as earnings and cash flows. Acquired identifiable intangible assets are recorded at fair value and are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Acquired intangible assets with an indefinite life are not amortized but are reviewed for impairment at least annually or more frequently whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of those assets are below their estimated fair values. Impairment is tested under ASC 350.


Long-Lived Assets - The Company monitors the carrying value of long-lived assets for potential impairment and tests the recoverability of such assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If a change in circumstance occurs, the Company performs a test of recoverability by comparing the carrying value of the asset or asset group to its undiscounted expected future cash flows. If cash flows cannot be separately and independently identified for a single asset, the Company will determine whether impairment has occurred for the group of assets for which the Company can identify the projected cash flows. If the carrying values are in excess of undiscounted expected future cash flows, the Company measures any impairment by comparing the fair value of the asset or asset group to its carrying value.


Related Party Liabilities - The Company’s HWH World, Inc subsidiary has a service agreement with HWH Korea, a subsidiary of Alset International Limited (“Alset Intl.”) (formally Singapore eDevelopment Limited). The Chairman of the Company, Mr. Heng Fai Ambrose Chan, is the Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer of Alset Intl. Mr. Chan is also the majority shareholder of Alset Intl as well as the largest shareholder of the Company. The Company also owns approximately 127,179,000 shares of Alset International, a company publicly listed on the Singapore Exchange Limited. This service agreement will allow HWH Korea to utilize the Company’s merchant account in connection with their direct marketing network with periodic remittance of the cash collected to them for a fee of 2.5% of amounts collected. As of December 31, 2020, the Company has collected approximately $1,100,000 on behalf of HWH Korea. This amount was remitted to HWH Korea, net of fees and other expenses, in the first quarter of 2021. The related party liability is included in “Other current liabilities” on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. There were no amounts outstanding to this related party at December 31, 2019.


Reverse Stock Split - On May 4, 2020, Document Security Systems, Inc. held a Special Meeting of Stockholders at which the Company’s stockholders approved amendment to the Company’s certificate of incorporation to effect a reverse split of common stock of the Company by a ratio of 1-for-30 with the effectiveness of such amendment to be determined by the Board of Directors of the Company The form of the certificate of amendment to effect the Reverse Split was subsequently approved by the Board on May 4, 2020. On May 7, 2020, the Company filed a Certificate of Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of New York to effect a 1-for-30 reverse stock split of the Company’s outstanding common stock. The Amendment was effective at 5:01 p.m. Eastern Time on May 7, 2020. The reverse stock split has been retroactively applied to all financial statements presented.


Revenue - The Company recognizes its products and services revenue based on when the title passes to the customer or when the service is completed and accepted by the customer. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for shipped product or service provided. Sales and other taxes billed and collected from customers are excluded from revenue. The Company also derives revenue from royalties from third parties which are typically based on licensees’ net sales of products that utilize the Company’s technology, or on a per item usage of the technology on the customers’ printed products. The Company recognizes license revenue at the time it is reported by the licensee. From time to time, the Company generates license revenues through litigation settlements. For these, the Company recognizes revenue upon the execution of the agreement, when collectability is reasonably assured, or upon receipt of the minimum upfront fee for term agreement renewals, and when all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. The Company generates revenue from its direct marketing line of business primarily through internet sales and recognizes revenue as items are shipped.


As of December 31, 2020, the Company had no unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts with an original expected duration of greater than one year. Pursuant to Topic 606, the Company has applied the practical expedient with respect to disclosure of the deferral and future expected timing of revenue recognition for transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations. The Company elected the practical expedient allowing it to not recognize as a contract asset the commission paid to its salesforce on the sale of its products as an incremental cost of obtaining a contract with a customer but rather recognize such commission as expense when incurred as the amortization period of the asset that the Company would have otherwise recognized is one year or less.


Costs of revenue - Costs of revenue includes all direct cost of the Company’s packaging, commercial and security printing sales, primarily, paper, inks, dies, and other consumables, and direct labor, transportation and manufacturing facility costs. In addition, this category includes all direct costs associated with the manufacturing and procurement of the products sold in the Company’s Direct Marketing line of business as well as with the Company’s technology sales, services and licensing including hardware and software that is resold, third-party fees, and fees paid to inventors or others as a result of technology licenses or settlements, if any. Amortization of patent costs and acquired technology are included in depreciation and amortization on the consolidated statement of operations. Costs of revenue do not include expenses related to product development, integration, and support. These costs are included in research and development, which is a component of selling, general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statement of operations. Legal costs are included in selling, general and administrative.


Shipping and Handling Costs - Costs incurred by the Company related to shipping and handling are included in cost of revenue. Amounts charged to customers pertaining to these costs are reflected as revenue.


Share-Based Payments - Compensation cost for stock awards are measured at fair value and the Company recognizes compensation expense over the service period for which awards are expected to vest. The Company uses the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model for determining the estimated fair value for stock-based awards. The Black-Scholes-Merton model requires the use of subjective assumptions which determine the fair value of stock-based awards, including the option’s expected term and the price volatility of the underlying stock. For equity instruments issued to consultants and vendors in exchange for goods and services the Company determines the measurement date for the fair value of the equity instruments issued at the earlier of (i) the date at which a commitment for performance by the consultant or vendor is reached or (ii) the date at which the consultant or vendor’s performance is complete. In the case of equity instruments issued to consultants, the fair value of the equity instrument is recognized over the term of the consulting agreement.


Sales Commissions - Sales commissions are expensed as incurred for contracts with an expected duration of one year or less. A significant portion of the Company’s sales commissions expense is generated from its direct marketing line of business. These commissions are based on current month shipments and are paid one month in arrears. There were no sales commissions capitalized as of December 31, 2020.


Contingent Legal Expenses - Contingent legal fees are expensed in the consolidated statements of operations in the period that the related revenues are recognized. In instances where there are no recoveries from potential infringers, no contingent legal fees are paid; however, the Company may be liable for certain out of pocket legal costs incurred pursuant to the underlying legal services agreement that will be paid out from the proceeds from settlements or licenses that arise pursuant to an enforcement action, which will be expensed as legal fees in the period in which the payment of such fees is probable. Any unamortized patent acquisition costs will be expensed in the period a conclusion is reached in an enforcement action that does not yield future royalties potential.


Research and Development - Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs consist primarily of third-party research costs and consulting costs. The Company recognized costs of approximately $210,000 in 2020, and a credit in 2019 of approximately $12,000 primarily due to receipt of the anticipated $33,000 refund on development costs for the development of proprietary blockchain solutions for the Company’s AuthentiGuard product line.


Income Taxes - The Company recognizes estimated income taxes payable or refundable on income tax returns for the current year and for the estimated future tax effect attributable to temporary differences and carry-forwards. Measurement of deferred income items is based on enacted tax laws including tax rates, with the measurement of deferred income tax assets being reduced by available tax benefits not expected to be realized. We recognize penalties and accrued interest related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.


Comprehensive Income (Loss) - Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of the Company during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. It consists of net income (loss) and other income and losses affecting stockholders’ equity that, under U.S. GAAP, are excluded from net income (loss). The change in fair value of interest rate swaps was the only item impacting accumulated other comprehensive loss for the year ended December 31, 2019.


Earnings Per Common Share - The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share. Basic earnings per share reflect the actual weighted average of shares issued and outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share are computed including the number of additional shares from outstanding warrants, stock options and preferred stock that would have been outstanding if dilutive potential shares had been issued and is calculated utilizing the treasury stock method. In a loss period, the calculation for basic and diluted earnings per share is the same, as the impact of potential common shares is anti-dilutive. Weighted average shares outstanding used for diluted earnings per share includes the assumed conversion of the 47,000 preferred shares, convertible into 7,233,000 common shares, for the period they were outstanding resulting in an additional 2,471,000 shares for the year ended December 31, 2020.


Concentration of Credit Risk - The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts, which at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk as a result of any non-performance by the financial institutions.


During 2020, two customers accounted for 38% of our consolidated revenue. As of December 31, 2020, these two customers accounted for 60% of our consolidated trade accounts receivable balance. As of December 31, 2019, these two customers accounted for 45% of our consolidated revenue and 48% of our consolidated trade accounts receivable balance.


Business Combinations - Business combinations and non-controlling interests are recorded in accordance with FASB ASC 805 Business Combinations. Although Impact BioMedical historically, and to date has not generated any revenues, the acquisition of Impact BioMedical meets the definition of a business with inputs, processes, and outputs, and therefore, the Company has concluded to account for this transaction in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting under Topic 805. Under the guidance, we determine the fair value of consideration paid and the assets and liabilities of the acquired business are recorded at their fair values at the date of acquisition and all acquisition costs are expensed as incurred. The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values is recorded as goodwill. If the fair value of the assets acquired exceeds the purchase price and the liabilities assumed, then a gain on acquisition is recorded. The application of business combination accounting requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions. See Note 7 regarding the acquisitions in 2020.


Discontinued Operations – On April 20, 2020, the Company executed a nonbinding letter of intent with a perspective buyer for the sale of certain assets of its plastic printing business line, which it operated under Plastic Printing Professionals, Inc. (“DSS Plastics”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. That sale was consummated and closed on August 14, 2020. The remaining assets of DSS Plastics were either sold, separately disposed, or retained by other existing DSS businesses lines. Accordingly, the operations of DSS Plastics have been discontinued. Based on the magnitude of DSS Plastics’ historical revenue to the Company and because the Company has exited the production of laminated and surface printed cards, this sale represented a significant strategic shift that has a material effect on the Company’s operations and financial results. Accordingly, the Company has applied discontinued operations treatment for this sale as required by Accounting Standards Codification 205—Discontinued Operations. The major classes of assets and liabilities of DSS Plastics are classified as Held for Sale – Discontinued Operations on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and the operating results of the discontinued operations is reflected on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) as Loss from Discontinued Operations. See Note 16.


Newly Adopted and Recent Accounting Pronouncements - In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326)”, which requires entities to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. This replaces the existing incurred loss model and is applicable to the measurement of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost. This guidance is effective for the Company for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently assessing the impact that adopting this new accounting standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.


In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) – Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment”, which eliminates the two-step process that required identification of potential impairment and a separate measure of the actual impairment. The annual assessment of goodwill impairment will be determined by using the difference between the carrying amount and the fair value of the reporting unit. The standards update is effective for goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and has been adopted by the Company effective January 1, 2020.


In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 and its related amendments which introduced Leases (Topic 842, or “ASC 842”), a new comprehensive lease accounting model that supersedes the current lease guidance under Leases (Topic 840). The new accounting standard requires lessees to recognize right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and corresponding lease liabilities for all leases with lease terms of greater than 12 months. It also changes the definition of a lease and expands the disclosure requirements of lease arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB added a transition option for implementation that allows companies to continue to use the legacy guidance in ASC 840, Leases, including its disclosure requirements, in the comparative periods presented in the year of adoption. The Company adopted the guidance effective January 1, 2019. The Company elected the transition package of three practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance and elected the optional transition method that allows for a cumulative-effect adjustment in the period of adoption, without a restatement of prior periods. Further, the Company elected a short-term lease exception policy, permitting the Company to not apply the recognition requirements of this standard to short-term leases (i.e. leases with terms of 12 months or less). As a result of the adoption, the Company adjusted its beginning balance as of January 1, 2019 by recording operating lease ROU asset and liabilities through a cumulative-effect adjustment. The adoption impacted the accompanying consolidated balance sheet but did not have an impact on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).


At the inception of a contractual arrangement, the Company determines whether the contract contains a lease by assessing whether there is an identified asset and whether the contract conveys the right to control the use of the identified asset in exchange for consideration over a period of time. If both criteria are met, the Company calculates the associated lease liability and corresponding ROU assets upon lease commencement using a discount rate based on a credit adjusted secured borrowing rate commensurate with the term of the lease. The Company records lease liabilities within current or noncurrent liabilities based upon the length of time associated with the lease payments. The operating lease ROU assets includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred, if any, and are recorded as noncurrent assets. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the accompanying consolidated balance sheet. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The impact of the adoption of ASC 842 on the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2019 was a right-of-use asset and a lease liability of approximately $1,443,800.


Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak - The COVID-19 pandemic has created global economic turmoil and has potentially permanently impacted how many businesses operate and how individuals will socialize and shop in the future. We continue to feel the effect of the COVID-19 business shutdowns and consumer stay-at-home protections. But the effect of the economic shutdown has impacted our business lines differently, some more severely than others. In most cases, we believe the negative economic trends and reduced sales will recover over time. However, management determined that one of its business lines, DSS Plastics, had been, and would continue to be, more severely impacted by the pandemic than our other divisions, and we did not believe this was a short-term phenomenon. We expected that this business would be permanently impacted because we believe that both consumer and corporate future travel habits will be negatively impacted and, as a result, use of hotel access cards will be diminished. We believe that conventions and sporting events will be fewer and smaller in attendance, and therefore demand for our card identification products would be reduced. Further, we believe that physical security cards and individual IDs will be replaced by more digital and optical technologies. As a result, management decided to fully impair its goodwill related to DSS Plastics during the first quarter 2020, and to exit this business line. The impact of this decision in our first quarter 2020 earnings and for as of December 31, 2020 was an impairment of approximately $685,000. Additionally, it is reasonably possible that estimates made in the financial statements have been, or will be, materially and adversely impacted in the near term as a result of these conditions, including losses on inventory; impairment losses related to goodwill and other long-lived assets and current obligations.


Continuing Operations and Going Concern - The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. This basis of accounting contemplates the recovery of our assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. These consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments to the specific amounts and classifications of assets and liabilities, which might be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern. While the Company has approximately $5.2 million in cash, and a positive working capital position of approximately $3.6 million as of December 31, 2020, the Company has incurred operating losses as well as negative cash flows from operating and investing activities over the past two years.


To continue as a going concern, during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, the Company through multiple underwriting agreements with Aegis Capital Corp. (“Aegis”), acting as representative of the several underwriters, provided the issuance and sale by the Company in an underwritten public offering shares of the Company’s common stock. The net offering proceeds to the Company approximated $20.2 million. Also, through two separate public offerings underwritten by Aegis during the first quarter of 2021, the Company received net proceeds of approximately $61.0 million.


The Company’s management intends to take actions necessary to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans concerning these matters includes, among other things, continued growth among our operating segments, and tightly controlling operating costs and reducing spending growth rates wherever possible to return to profitability. In addition, the Company has taken steps, and will continue to take measures, to materially reduce the expenses and cash burn at all corporate and business line levels. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, steps were taken to materially reduce or eliminate cash burns in the IP Monetization program, the DSS Digital Group and the DSS Plastics group.


At the Company’s current operating levels and capital usage, we believe that without any further acquisition or investments, our $5.2 million in aggregate cash, and cash equivalents, as of December 31, 2020, along with the $61.0 million raised during the first quarter of 2021, would allow us to fund our nine business lines current and planned operations through March 2022. Based on this, the Company has concluded that substantial doubt of its ability to continue as a going concern has been alleviated